Physical education is an process that has its aim the improvement of human performance through medium of physical activities selected to realize this outcome


Physical education is that phase of education which is concerned, first, with the organization and leadership of children, in big muscle activites, to gain the development and adjustment inherent in the activities according to social standards, and second, with the control of health or growth conditions naturally associated with the leadership of the activities so that the educational process may go on without growth handicaps (Clark W. Hetherington).


Physical education is that phase of the school program which is concerned largely with the growth and development of children through the medium of big-muscle activities (The Society of State Directors of Physical Education and Health).


Physical education includes exercises, play and games; depending on the setting, it may be organized or spontaneous, competitive or non-competitive, required or optional, job related or job excluded, and a diversion or compulsion.

Physical education is a process through which and individual o b tains optimal physical, mental, and social skills and fitness through physical activity (Angela Lumpkin).


Physical education is a way of education through physical activities whicah are selected and carried on with full reagrd to values in human growth, development, and behavior (Physical Education Platform, American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation, Washington, D.C. 1949).

Physical education is the social process of change in the behavior of the human organism, originating primarily from the stimulus of social-big muscle play and related activities (C.C.Cowell).


Physical education is an integral part of the total educational process and has as its aim the development physically, mentally, emotionally, and socially fit citizens through the medium of physical activities which have been selected with view to realizing these outcomes (Charles A. Bucher).

Physical education is an educational process that has its aim the improvement of human performance through the medium of physical activities selected to realize this outcomes (Charles A. Bucher).

Introduction to the study of physical education

he physical education profession has changed dramatically.

Traditionally physical education profession has been viewed as providing services within educational field, specifically to the schools and to the school-aged population.

This growth has led not only to substantial increases in knowledge but also to the expansion of programs and the populations served.

Employment opportunities have grown from the traditional career of teaching and coaching career in non-school settings, health and fitness-related careers, sport management careers and sport media careers.

This growth has been influenced by many factors .

The fitness boom and the increase in leisure time has created a market for physical education.

The emphasis by society on achieving and maintaining optimal health and well-being throughout one's lifespan and on disease prevention and health promotion has also served as the impetus for expansion of professional opportunities.

Appropriate physical activity is acknowledged to be important factor in the attainment of optimal health for people of all ages.

However while the profession is experincing an exciting era of growth, it has some problems.

While most physical education professionals consider physical education to be an integral part of school's educational programs, this belief is not universally shared.

Researchers and scholars have increased the knowledge base through their activities and specialized areas of study within the discipline of physical education have emerged.

The broadening of our scope and expansion of new and diverse career opportunities.
- This traditional teaching career has expanded from the school setting such as fitness setting, athletic club settings.

Programs have been developed to reach populations other than school-aged studies such as preschoolers, senior citizens, adults and individuals with special needs.
-Nonteaching careers in athletic training, exercise science and sport management have become popular career choices.







. A discipline is an organized, formal body of knowledge.


. The discipline of physical education has its primary focus on the study of human movement.

Sport Psychology: utilizes various principles, concepts and facts from the field of psychology to study behavior in sport.

Motor Learning: focuses on factors that influence the development of abilities essential to movement.

Adapted Physical Education: is concerned with studying the capacities and limitations of persons with special needs or handicaps and designing appropriate physical education programs.

The most common sub - disciplines are:

Sport Sociology:
the study of the role of sport in society.

Biomechanics: the study of the various forces that act on the human body and the effects that such forces produce.

Sport Medicine: the medical relationship between physical activity and the human body.

Exercise Physiology: is applied or the study of the impact that exercise and work conditions have on the human body.

Sport Philosophy: focuses on critically analyzing issues as well as examining beliefs and values as they relate to participation in sport and physical education

History: study of the past with a view to describe and explain the events.

Pedagogy: the study of teaching

Health Related Fitness and Performance Related Fitness:

Health related fitness is concerned with the development of those qualities that offer protection against disease and frequently are associated with physical activity.

Performance related physical fitness is associated with those qualities conducive to better performance in sport and other physical activities, such as those requiring strength, endurance, agility and speed.

Lifespan Involvement in Sport, Fitness & Physical Education

Quality of Life
in today's world increasingly means a long and healthy life.

Wellness movement:
recommends adopting a lifestyle that help you to feel well and to stay well, that emphasizes prevention of illness rather than remediation of disease.

Health: refers to such qualities as physical, mental, emotional and social health; is not limited to the mere absence of disease and infirmity. It means total fitness.

Wellness: emphasizes the individuals power to make responsible decisions that not only lead to the prevention of disease but also the promotion of high level of health.

Recreation consists of those activities performed by a individual during nonworking hours. Frequently referred to as leisure-time activity.

Athletics refers to th games or sports usually engaged in by highly skilled individuals.

Athletic Training:
the most highly developed sport vocations is that of athletic trainer.
The trainer not only deals with injuries and their rehabilitation but also with sports physicians to implement both prevention and rehabilitation with individual athletes and with the team.

•  The Early Years
. Infant Motor Programs
. Children's Sport
. Elementary Physical Education
. Youth-the Transition Years
. The Young Adult
. Older Adult

Lifespan Involvement
when considering the topics of sport, fitness and physical education, what groups come to mind?

- children at play
- youth
- adults
- seniors
- girls less than boys
- women less than men

The possibility of lifespan involvement potentially touches every person. This revolution is not limited by age and gender.

People who want to follow such a course now have the possibility to do so.

Characteristics of Lifespan Involvement

1. The importance of early start
2. Breakdown of gender stereotypes
3. Breakdown of age stereotypes
4. Shift in emphasis from youth to adults
5. Shift to the private sector
6. Increasingly more scientific base
7. More information, more readily available
8. The new professionals


New Settings for Sport, Fitness and Physical Education

. Multipurpose Athletic Club
. Aerobic and step classes etc.
. The specialized sport/fitness
. The sport medicine center
. The Home
. The Worksite