Roman Empire

Beginning-6000 B.C. (Physical Education for Survival )

•  Aims of Physical Education : To increase the chances of group survival, the tribe encouraged youths to develop the strength, endurance, agility, and skills needed to withstand the danger of outdoor life, to obtain the necessities of life.

•  Promotion of P.E. : Parents, medicine men or shamans, and other tribal leaders informally acquainted youths with the skills and knowledge they would need as adults.

•  Program of P. E. : Games of war, games of chase, and tag, dancing and other forms of rhythmic activity generally related to religious beliefs, play and physical activities related to self-preservation skills.

•  Methods of P.E. : Imitation, indoctrination, and trial and error methods were the basic means of educating children.


•  Aims of P.E. : The vocational, recreational, and religious objectives of p.e than in military or health objectives.

•  Promotion of P.E. : Apprenticeship was the mode of education in Egypt.

•  Program of P.E. : Swimming was one of the popular sports even among women, dance, archery, lion hunting, fishing, stick fighting, acrobatics, ball games etc.

•  Methods of P.E. : Under the apprenticeship system, youngsters learned by imitating the movement of their parents or tutors.


•  Aims of P.E. : In the earlier times (before Taoism, Buddhism and Confucianism) bodily conditioning played a more important role in Chinese society than later times.

•  Promotion of P.E. : Some authorities believe that more than four thousand t-years ago the Chinese not only originated schools but also had state education officers and a system of national education examinations.

•  Program of P.E. : Wrestling boxing, football, archery (military purposes), polo, hunting, fishing, swimming, flying kites, light exercises( eg Cong Fu) etc.

•  Methods of P. E. : Little is known how they taught motor skills probably learned by doing and by following the example of their elders.

Physical Education for the Homeric Greeks

•  Aims of P.E. : The overall aim of p.e. was to develop the man of action. Every citizen was a soldier and physical fitness was a necessity.

•  Promotion of P.E. : During the Homeric age there were no formal educational institutions. The agencies of education were the family or clan.

•  Program ofP.E. : ( Iliad and the Odyssey- Funeral-chariot race-boxing-wrestling-foot race-javelin throw). Dancing was another activity the Greeks participated from the earliest times. Some sport activities were reserved for the aristocrats, particularly chariot racing, boxing, wrestling and running.

•  Methods of P.E.: Children acquired their education by imitating the adults, pay attention to the feast or funeral games, listening to the exciting tales of the gods, memorizing the great epics, and absorbing the wisdom of the council meetings.

Physical Education for the Early Athenians

•  Aims of P.E. : In Athens, p.e. was an integral part of national life not only in the need to prepare citizens for war, but also in the Greek ideals of beauty and harmony (Aesthetic). Moral and spirit training using sports.

•  Promotion of P.E. : Much less regulated than in Sparta. The state gave no financial support tp formal education. Government concerned with safeguarding the morals of the youths than with prescribing age, courses, methods or supervision. Father determined the child's physical fitness-free education for children whose fathers killed in fighting's for Athens. Girls remained at home until they married. No physical or intellectual education only household arts. They did not participated in social and political life with men. Two kinds of private elementary schools- palaestra ( wrestling) for p.e. and didascaleum (music) for literature, music, and arithmetic.

Physical Education for the Spartan Greeks

•  Aims of P.E. : Spartan p.e. was designed to develop a man of action who possessed brute strength, physical endurance, unflinching courage and military skill.

•  Promotion of P.E. : Only the healthy and strong children were allowed to live by a council of elders. Until the age of seven the mother was responsible fort the training of the child. The more formal education system, called ‘‘agoge'' was supervised by the superintendent (paidonomus). Stage in education, after 18 concentrated on military exercises. Spartan would remain in military services until he was at least 50. The youths were grouped into companies of 64 with a selected leader. Four of these companies were combined into a troop. At the age of 30, a man gained full citizenships. expected to marry and take a seating the council but still live in public barracks. The education of Spartan women was similar to that of men. Divided into different classes and participated in same exercise but live in only home. Great success in Ancient Olympics between 720 B.C. and 576 B.C.

•  Program of P.E. : The Spartan curriculum consisted almost entirely of a military training. Gymnastic exercises were the main means of education for beginning youths. They engaged in running, fighting, leaping, swimming, hunting, wrestling, hiking, boxing, playing ball, throwing discus, and javelin, and competing in arena.

•  Methods of P.E. : Periodic testing by the state officials (ephors) was administered to evaluate the boy's physical capacity and citizenship. Praise and punishment used. Flogging was the universal penalty.