NATIONAL PLAN FOR IN SITU CONSERVATION OF PLANT GENETIC DIVERSITY

IN TURKEY

 

 

 

 

 

 

Coordinator : Ministry of Environment

Collaborators : Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs

Ministry of Forestry

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prof. Dr. Zeki KAYA

Dept. of Biological Sciences

Faculty of Art and Sciences

Middle East Tech.Univ.-Ankara

 

 

Prof. Dr. Ekrem KÜN

Dept. of Field Crops

Faculty of Agriculture

Ankara University-Ankara

 

 

 

Prof. Dr. Adil GÜNER

Dept. of Biology

Abant İzzet Baysal University-Bolu

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ankara - 1997

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Photographs by Dr. Alptekin Karagoz (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs) and Okan Cancin (Ministry of Forestry).

 

 

 

 

The contributions by Turkish Environment Foundation (TÇV), the Members of Project Scientific Advisory Committee, and The Society for Protection of Nature (DHKD) are greatly acknowledged.

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACRONYMS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

 

A. INTRODUCTION

B. THE STATUS OF PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES IN TURKEY

1. Species Richness

2. Endemic and Endangered Species

3. Plants in Economical Use

4. Factors Reducing Plant Genetic Diversity

4.1 Agricultural Activities

4.2 Industrialization, Urbanization and Construction

4.3 Collecting Plants From Nature

4.4 Forestry Activities and Fires

4.5 Tourism

5. Geographic Regions for Conservation of Genetic Diversity

C. CONSERVATION OF PLANT GENETIC DIVERSITY IN TURKEY

1. Legislative Status

1.1 Constitution

1.2 Other Laws

1.3 Regulations

2. International Agreements and Cooperations

3. Related Institutes and Organizations

3.1 Governmental Organizations

3.2 Non-governmental Organizations (NGO)

3.3 Private Organizations

4. Present Conservation Areas and Programs

4.1 Conservation Areas

4.2 Current Conservation Programs

4.3 Supplementary Programs for in situ Conservation

5. Research and Education

5.1 Taxonomic, Ecological and Biological Studies

5.2 Researches on in situ Conservation

5.3 Public Education

5.4 Personnel Education

6. Data Base and Exchange

6.1 Data Management

6.2 Geographic Information System (GIS)

7. Public Awareness

D. NATIONAL OBJECTIVES, PRIORITIES AND STRATEGIES

1. National Objectives

1.1 General Objectives of Plan

1.2 Specific Objectives of the Plan

2. Priorities and Strategies

2.1 In situ Conservation

2.2 Supplementary Programs to in situ Conservation (ex situ conservation)

E. PRIORITY ACTION PLAN

1. Legal and Institutional Strengthening

1.1 Legislative and Administrative Revisions

1.2 Coordination of Activities

1.3 Management Responsibilities

1.4 Economic Evaluation of in situ Conservation of Plant Genetic Resources

2. Implementation of the Plan

2.1 Public Establishment

2.2 Funding Methods

2.3 Priority Research Topics

GLOSSARY

REFERENCES FOR FURTHER READINGS

APPENDICES

APPENDIX-1: The Information for Conservation of the Genetic Diversity

APPENDIX- 2:Tables

APPENDIX- 3: Distribution Maps of Target Species

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ACRONYMS

 

AARI : Aegean Agricultural Research Institute

BRA : Biogenetic Reserve Areas

RBGC : the Regional Board for In Situ Gene Conservation

CRIFC : Central Research Institute for Field Crops

ESFR : Euro-Siberian Floristic Region

FAO : United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization

FOREC : Forest Ecosystems

FTSIRD : Forest Trees and Seed Improvement Research Directorate

FTNC : Foundation for Turkish Nature Conservation (TTKD)

GCF : Gene Conservation Forests

GCA : Gene Conservation Areas

GMZ : Gene Management Zone

GRMU : Gene Resources Management Units

GWCD : Game and Wildlife Conservation and Development Foundation

HBGC : Higher Board for Gene Conservation

IPGRI : International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Italy

ITFR : Irano-Turanian Floristic Region

IUCN : International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

MARA : Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs

MFR : Mediterranean Floristic Region

MOE : Ministry of Environment

MOF : Ministry of Forestry

NP : National Parks

NAP : Nature Parks

NCA : Nature Conservation Areas

NEAP : National Environmental Action Plan

NGO : Non-Governmental Organizations

NM : Natural Monuments

NPGWD : National Parks, Game and Wildlife General Directorate

PF : Protection Forests

REFPRA : Rural Environment and Forestry Problems Research Association

SF : State Farms

SPER : Specially Protected Environmental Regions

SPN : Society for he Protection of Nature (DHKD)

SPO : State Planning Organization

SS : Seed Stands

TBMM : Turkish Grand National Assembly

TEF : Turkish Environment Foundation

TEPF : Turkish Erosion Prevention, Afforestation and Natural Resources Conservation Foundation (TEMA)

TBDAP : Turkish Biological Diversity Action Plan

TEAP : Turkish Environmental Action Plan

TİGEM : General Directorate of Agricultural Enterprises

TUBITAK :The Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey

UNEP : United Nations Environmental Program

UNESCO : United Nations,Educational,Scientific and Cultural Organization

WEC : Wetlands Ecosystems

WRI : World Research Institute, United States

WWF : World Wide Fund for Nature, United States

WCA : Wildlife Conservation Areas

 

NATIONAL PLAN FOR IN SITU CONSERVATION OF PLANT GENETIC DIVERSITY IN TURKEY

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

A. INTRODUCTION

 

With its richness in genetic diversity, Turkey has a unique position. Two important gene centers (Near East and Mediterranean) described by Vavilov (1951) are located in the country. Besides these two gene centers, Turkey also includes diversity centers for many wild, transitional and cultivated forms of annual and perennial, herbaceous and woody plants (Table 1).

 

The richness of plant genetic diversity in Turkey is essential for continuation of a crop improvement and agriculture in the temperate belt of the World. However conservation of genetic diversity of cultivated plants, their wild relatives, transitional forms and forest trees with global importance were generally ignored or not considered when the actions on protection of nature and biological diversity are the issues. Efficient conservation of genetic diversity in wild relatives of cultivated plants, their primitive forms and important forest trees are also needed for effectiveness and continuation of plant breeding researches on agriculture and forestry in Turkey as well as in the world.

 

Considering the diversity of Anatolian civilisation, it is easily understood that the plant genetic resources were under the pressure and destruction by anthropogenic factors. Due to long term improper utilization of natural resources, the original structure of plant genetic diversity have been continued to change. There is no efficient program or strategy to conserve the plant genetic resources in situ. For example, the natural distribution of chick pea which was commonly existed in large areas in Anatolia in the past, is considerably narrowed now. At the present, its limited populations can only be found in rocky areas which are relatively less grazed. A few other species that their genetic resources affected adversely by excessive utilization are walnut, Taurus cedar, sweet gum and elm. Conservation of genetic resources of such plant species will provide very valuable genetic resources for agricultural and forestry activities in Turkey as well as in other countries in the World.

There are various approaches and methods for in situ conservation of genetic resources of wild relatives of crop species and forest tree species. For example, for non-commercial species, ecosystem reserves such as national parks (passive in situ conservation) could be considered as the most economical approach. But, one type of in situ conservation program that is the Gene Management Zone (GMZ) approach (or Genetic Resources Management Units (GRMU)) seems to be more suitable for wild relatives of crop species and commercially important tree species. The primary function of GMZs is the protection of genetic resources of either a single target species or entire community, but it could be also managed for other economic benefits such as grazing and timber harvesting as long as the other uses do not threaten the primary function of GMZ. In site selection or population selection for GMZ, highest priority is to capture the core variability within the species in the areas that represent the variability of the region.

 

An in situ conservation project supported first time by a special fund (Global Environment Facility, GEF) of The World Bank, was initiated in 1993 by the Ministries of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (MARA), Forestry (MOF), and Environment (MOE) in Turkey. This pilot project aimed to conserve the genetic diversity of wild relatives of cultivated plants and forest tree species with global importance. The objectives of this project were to train research scientists in various aspects of in situ conservation and upgrade the laboratory facilities in research institutes of MARA and MOF, to establish in situ conservation programs for conserving genetic diversity of target species selected in pilot sites (Kazdağı and Bolkar mountains, and Ceylanpınar State Farm), as well as to develop in situ GMZ concept which can be used for other species throughout the country. To achieve the last goal and to incorporate GMZs concept and experiences from the project into existing conservation programs, The MOE was asked to prepare a 'National Plan for in-situ conservation of genetic diversity in Turkey (Here on, it will just be referred to as The National Plan).

 

A draft copy of the National Plan was prepared in January 1995 and the copies of The National Plan were sent out to involving institutions within the country to get views of in-country experts. The draft National Plan was also presented to the International Symposium held on " In-Situ Conservation of Plant Genetic Diversity" on November 4-8, 1996 in Antalya, Turkey to solicit the views of the international experts. After the comments and criticisms from both in-country as well as international experts in the field were received, they were incorporated to the present version of the National Plan.

 

With the implementation of the National Plan , it is expected that the plant genetic resources which are seriously threatened by various factors will be efficiently conserved and managed in situ.

 

The National Plan consists of four main sections excluding the ‘introduction’. These sections are dealing with ‘the Status of Plant Genetic Resources in Turkey’, ‘Conservation of Plant Genetic Resources in Turkey’, ‘National Objectives-Priorities and Strategies’ and ’ the Priority Action Plan’. These sections will briefly presented below.

 

B. THE STATUS OF PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES IN TURKEY

 

1. Species Richness

 

Being in temperate climatic belt, Turkey is very rich in habitat diversity due to the diversity in its geomorphology, topography and climate. As a result, Turkey is very rich in plant species. Studies conducted to date have shown that there are 8745 species of vascular plants in Turkey and 2763 of them are endemic species. Turkey also includes gene centers of some forest trees (fir, spruce, cedar, juniper, sweet gum etc.) and wild relatives of cultivated plants (wheat, barley, lentil, chickpea, apple, pear, cherry, walnut, pistachio, chestnut etc.) which are crop plants of world-wide importance (Table 1).

 

The richness of Turkish flora is an important source for the utilization of plants with different purposes. Many plant species of flora are used as food, drug raw material, wood etc. Economically important plants can be grouped as Field Crops (cereals, legumes, industrial plants, forage plants), Horticultural Plants (vegetables, fruits, ornamentals), Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, and Forest Trees (Table 1). The wild and transitional forms of many cultivated plants in the country are also found as genetic sources.

 

The cereals include 6 wild relatives of wheat, 8 wild relatives of barley, 4 wild relatives of rye, and 6 wild relatives of oat. The important genetic resources of many legume (9 wild relatives of chickpea), forage (30 species of alfalfa, 57 species of bitter vetch and related ones, 59 species of chickling wetch and 95 species of clover) and industrial (8 wild relatives of sugar beet, opium poppy) and medicinal and aromatic plants (87 Salvia spp., 22 wild relatives of anise and 9 wild species of fox glove-Digitalis) naturally occur in Turkey. There are also many wild relatives of cultivated horticultural ( 10 wild relatives of pears, 8 wild relatives of cherry, 4 wild relatives of plum and 12 wild relatives of almond and wild relatives of many other horticultural species) and vegetable species (7 wild relatives of lettuce, 4 wild relatives of carrot, 143 wild relatives of onion).

 

Turkey is also rich in forest genetic resources. There exist important forest tree species which are very valuable not only for Turkey, but also for other countries. For examples, there are 5 native pine, 4 true fir , 20 oak, 8 juniper, one cedar (Taurus cedar), one beech (oriental beech) and one spruce (oriental spruce) species.

2. Factors Reducing Plant Genetic Diversity

Natural land structures in Anatolia, being a bridge between Europe and Asia where many ancient civilizations lived, have been changed due to long term human impacts on natural resources. It is generally accepted that present vegetation as a steppe vegetation dominant in most of the country is the result of long termed anthropogenic effects. The changes have become faster in the last century due to (1) Agricultural Activities (e.g., ploughing pastures for cultivation, over grazing in pastures, burning the stubble, excessive use of fertilizer and chemical, extension of high yielding cultivars); (2) industrialization, urbanization and construction of highways and dams; (3) collecting plants from nature; (4) forestry activities and fires; (5) tourism. Particularly after 1950s, these activities have increased the pressure on biological diversity that is beyond the carrying capacity of the lands. The most important consequences of these activities are the reduction and fragmentation of natural habitats.

 

The main factors which cause to increase these activities have been clearly addressed in Turkish Biodiversity Action Plan (Kün et al. 1995; Işık et al. 1995). Here, the ones which will be important for conservation of plant genetic resources will be given again. These factors are: (1) Considerable portion of the population of Turkey still lives in the rural areas close to forest or pasture lands and they depends on fuel wood for heating and cooking. Also people living in rural areas are the people with low incomes. With the current population growth rate, the demand for natural resources will increase in the future. Therefore, developmental projects for improving the life styles of these people are essential for continuity and effectiveness of conservation programs dealing with natural resources, (2) There is still a large area in Turkey which are mainly forest and pasture lands and there are agricultural lands within such areas. To determine the ownership of such agricultural lands, cadastral works have to be completed in the whole country. Otherwise, many forest and pasture land habitats will be lost for agricultural purposes, (3) Due to urbanization and touristic developments in recent years, there is an increasing pressure on forest, pasture and even agricultural lands. Without strict land-use regulations, it is very difficult keep those habitats very long. Therefore, environmental as well as natural resources impact assessment reports should be required by MOE or other related organizations before any developmental or industry related projects are implemented.

 

C. CONSERVATION OF PLANT GENETIC DIVERSITY IN TURKEY

1. Legislative status

Although the items in the Turkish Constitution are not directly related to the conservation of plant genetic diversity, the article 63 of the Constitution states that the government should protect its historical, cultural and natural values and resources as well as support and promote conservation efforts made by people. In addition to the articles present in the Constitution, the Law for Protection of Cultural and Natural Values, Environmental Law, National Parks Law, Bosphorus Law, Law for Specially Protect Environmental Regions, and Forestry Law provide the opportunity for the protection of nature and biological diversity, and facilitate activities related to the conservation of plant genetic diversity

However, the Laws and related Regulations should be reviewed as looking for new management policies for effective and scientific conservation program since the in situ conservation of target species will be implemented in the areas in the framework of above laws.

 

2. International agreements and cooperation

Turkey has aimed to participate actively and to take in control the trade and conservation of natural and biological resources by signing international agreements at different dates with many institutions. A few of those important ones are; Convention on Conservation of European Wildlife and Habitats, Bern (1979), Convention on Protection of Internationally Important Wetlands Providing Habitats for Birds, Ramsar (1975), Agreement on Trading of Wildlife and Plant Species, Washington (1973), Biological Diversity Agreement, Rio (1992). The country gives solid efforts for the implementation of these international agreements.

 

Turkey is member in many of international organizations related to biodiversity issues such as World Bank, United Nations-Education, Science and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), World Wide Fund for Nature-US (WWF), Council of Europe-Center Naturopa, United Nations-Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Commission on Plant Genetic Resources-FAO, International Plant Genetic Resources Institute-Italy (IPGRI), International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas-Syria (ICARDA), International Center for Maize and Wheat Improvement-Mexico (CIMMYT), The International Union of Forest Research Organization (IUFRO), United Nations Development Program (UNDP), European Cooperative Program for Crop Genetic Resources Networks (ECP/GR), European Forest Genetic Resources Program (EUFORGEN).

 

3. Related institutes and organizations

 

The Turkish Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, and Ministry of Forestry, are the leading institutions for the implementation of the laws and regulations related to the conservation of natural resources. Ministry of Environment provides coordination of such activities. The General Directorates of Forestry (GDF), General Directorate of National Parks, Game and Wildlife (GDNW), General Directorate of Afforestation and Erosion Control (GDAEC) and research institutes under Ministry of Forestry are responsible for the conservation programs conducted in forest areas. Research Directorate of Forest Trees and Seed Improvement is responsible for conducting ex situ and in situ conservation of genetic diversity of forest trees.

Aegean Agricultural Research Institute (AARI) is the leading responsible unit for conservation (generally ex situ) of plant genetic diversity of cultivated plants under the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs. This institute provides coordination and cooperate especially with Central Research Institute for Crop Plants and other regional and local research institutes in the activities related to the conservation of plant genetic diversity.

 

The other institutions of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Special Environment Protection Department of Ministry of Environment, Universities, the General Directorate of Culture and Natural Resources Protection under Ministry of Culture, and municipalities are also involved directly or indirectly in studies on the conservation of natural living resources. However, most of these activities are not directly related to the conservation of plant genetic diversity.

The number of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and their activities have been increased lately. But, their contribution is not in a desired level due to their inadequate budgets. However the Turkish Society for Protection of Nature (SPN), Foundation for Turkish Nature Conservation (FTNC), Turkish Erosion Prevention Foundation (TEPF), the Foundation of Conservation Afforestation and Natural Resources, Turkish Environmental Foundation efficiently involve with the public awareness on conservation and restoration of environment.

4. Present Conservation Areas and Programs

 

The studies related to conservation of plant genetic diversity in the forest areas are conducted by the governmental organizations through programs with various purposes and in different status such as the National Parks, Nature Conversation Areas, Nature Parks, Natural Monuments, Seed Stands, Gene Conservation Forests, all within the Ministry of Forestry.

 

To date, 452 Natural SIT (Archaeological, natural and cultural) conservation areas, which are strictly protected, have been established by the Ministry of Culture. Also 23 of 64 wetlands in the country were set aside as a Natural SIT area.

 

General Directorate of National Parks, Game and Wildlife Conservation of MOF have been working in establishment of protected areas since 1958. To date, 31 national parks (612112 hectares), 11 nature parks (46872 hectares), 32 nature conservation areas (total area of 82023 ha.), 54 nature monuments (total area of 73.8 ha.), 7 Biogenetic reserves have been established and managed by MOF. These programs have to be reviewed in terms of their size, distribution, administration and management policy by taking the biodiversity and in situ gene conservation principles in order to have an effective in situ gene conservation program in whole country. Of these conservation programs, Nature Conservation Areas are the most suitable ones for the in situ gene conservation programs.

 

There are also other protected lands established by different institutions which should also be considered as in situ conservation programs. These are MOF-Protection forests (1.5 % of total forest lands, 360130 ha. of total area) and Wildlife Conservation Areas, MARA-Agricultural Enterprises, and MOE-Specially Protected Environmental Regions. These programs are not directly involved in situ gene conservation. However they could also be utilized for the purpose of in situ conservation of plant genetic diversity, due to their legislative status

 

4.1. In situ gene conservation areas

 

There are also conservation programs which aim to conserve genetic resources of plants in situ. For example, Gene Conservation Forests (GCF) were started within frame work of the National Tree Improvement and Seed Production Program implemented in 1993. The selection of GCF were made from the forests which are naturally established, in good condition, uneven age structured, 10 - 100 ha. in size. Up to present, total of 2816 ha. area for 6 forest tree species have been set aside as GCF and it is planned to include more than 25 forest tree species and to set aside 18 100 ha. area in total in the future.

 

 

Seed Stands (SS) are artificial or naturally (mainly natural) regenerated forest requiring minimum 25 ha. area and special silvicultural practices to produce high quality seed for regeneration programs. Turkish Forest Trees and Seed Improvement Research Directorate (FTSIRD) has set up 322 seed stands for 26 forest trees species (32914 ha. land in total). SS have been set up basically for most of target forest tree species. Thus, SSs can be used as effective genetic resources if their size and management types are revised with respect to in situ conservation concept.

Gene Management Zones (GMZ) are the natural and seminatural areas protected with purpose of maintaining the genetic diversity in target plant species. GMZs are in situ gene conservation areas where the evolutionary processes take place in populations of endangered, or economically important plant species as well as species with high potential of genetic diversity and differentiation. With the “In situ Conservation of Plant Genetic Diversity in Turkey” project, studies concerning the in situ gene conservation of important plant species have been started initially in selected sites such as Kazdağ, Bolkar mountains and Ceylanpınar State Farm. With the help of results of population biology and ecological studies, similar in situ conservation studies for the target species listed in the National Plan will be carried out in other places nationwide. With the implementation of the plan, in situ conservation of genetic resources of wild relatives of crop species in large pasture lands (21.7 million ha.) will be effectively carried out. Today, there is no responsible institution as well as management system for these large pasture lands and pastures are overgrazed regardless of their carrying capacity.

4.2. Supplementary programs for in situ conservation

It may not be adequate to have only in situ conservation programs for the maintenance of the genetic diversity in many target plant species in certain areas. In such case, in situ conservation programs have to be supported with ex situ conservation programs to provide gene resources for plant breeders as well as for genetic stocks whenever it is needed. At the present, there are two types of ex situ conservation programs in Turkey; 1) Seed orchards and clone banks, mainly for forest tree species 2) gene banks, mainly used for annual plants and partly for forest trees.

Seed Orchards (SO) are the artificially established forests which are intensively managed and have limited number of genotypes to produce genetically improved forest tree seeds for various forestry practices. The MOF-FTSIRD has established 146 clonal seed orchards (total area of 1 018 ha.) for commercially important tree species including most of the target forest tree species. To represent genetic diversity of natural forests in ex situ programs, the number of genotypes especially in clone banks should be increased with considering the effective population size in populations of the species. Ministry of Forestry has also cold-storage-room facilities in FTSIRD-Ankara that can be used for long term ex situ conservation purposes (storing capacity of 585 thousand seedlings for 1 to 10 years).

In the Aegean Agriculture Research Institute (AARI), Central Research Institute for Field Crops (CRIFC) Gene Bank (Ankara), and Osman Tosun Gene Bank (Faculty of Agriculture, Ankara University), genetic materials as seeds for crop species and their wild relatives as gene resources in breeding and research programs are stored for long term. In these gene banks, there are several thousands accessions mainly collected from Turkey. There are also small gene banks in some other institutes working to develop the cultivars in field crops and horticultural species.

 

5. Research and Education

 

The recent taxonomic studies led the discovery of many new species have indicated that plant species, genera and families should be revised since there is great need to clarify the taxonomic status of many species to have effective conservation program. There are a few studies dealing with genetic variation within species. Most of the studies are limited to single location or a few observations. To determine the real pattern of genetic variation within the species, new research programs are needed.

 

With funding from the project titled “In situ Conservation of Plant Genetic Diversity” initiated 1993, the institutes in MARA, and MOF have been equipped with new lab facilities as well as technical personnel in these institutes have been trained on in situ conservation of plant genetic resources. These institutes now have research background to conduct the in situ conservation studies in the future. The trained group of personal from three ministries (MARA, MOF and MOE) with the contributions from universities have formed the technical personal core responsible in producing management and research policies for in situ gene conservation programs in Turkey. However, extensive educational programs are still needed to train and educate more young researchers in the field for enlarging the core technical personnel already exist.

 

Public education on environmental problems and nature values in Turkey has been started in recent decades. Due to this, “environmental consciousness” among both educated or non-educated sections of the society of the country is inadequate. In recent years, broadcasting the educational programs related to environmental problems in media has improved considerably the “environmental consciousness” of the public in Turkey. The environment and nature related works of the governmental, private and the voluntary organizations are also promising to improve the “environmental consciousness” of public further.

 

6. Data base and exchange

The scientific data production and evaluation are needed to establish “Gene Management Zones” which will lead the in situ conservation programs for plant genetic diversity in Turkey. For this purpose, a database created on in situ conservation of plant genetic resources should be provided in a very short time to responsible governmental and private or voluntary institutes which will need this kind of information.

At the moment, FTSIRD is the institution which establishes and monitors all gene conservation areas in tree species with cooperation of other MOF organizations. At the same time, the General Directorate of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation contributes to the conservation of genetic diversity in conserved areas. Conservation programs concerning wild relatives and land races of crop species are carried out by the MARA-AARI, İzmir, and CRIFC, Ankara.

The continuation and success of “In Situ Conservation of Plant Genetic Diversity National Plan” depend on the generation of adequate data and the distribution of available information on genetic resources to related institutions. To eliminate the duplication of researches in the future, first with existing data, a central data base should be formed and managed for conservation of plant genetic resources.

 

The most efficient way to use the information accumulated in a center will be in favor of establishment and precise utilization of Geographic Information System (GIS). The establishment of GIS network among involved institutions will be very valuable. With the applications of GIS, vegetation mapping systems can be developed and can be very useful for vegetation management. GIS can be used in determining whether the areas defined in in situ studies are reduced or enlarged. Specific species within their habitats can be followed and controlled, and also the increase or reduction in species density can be monitored by this system. Therefore, the GIS will help to evaluate continuously an area and to select the strategies for the sustainable utilization of land.

 

7. Public awareness

The approach for conservation of genetic resources in our country is a very new issues. Public support is needed for effectiveness and continuity of the gene conservation program. Public in Turkey is not aware of the importance of the plant genetic resources and their conservation. To establish a good public awareness program on conservation of biological diversity and especially in situ gene conservation of plant genetic resources, we need comprehensive plans dealing with the issues such as determination of objectives and strategies, target public, and means and ways to apply the programs clearly and effectively.

In addition to the public awareness establishment in general, an effective in situ conservation program in Turkey requires the active participation of local communities since traditional patterns of land use, transit and lifestyle will be disturbed with the establishment of new GMZs as well as other in situ conservation programs. The program which will allow the local community participation to in situ conservation programs should start or be prepared long before the GMZs in given area are established. Such program may be started first in pilot GMZs, especially GMZs close to the places where you could get better public awareness education could be selected. The main points in public awareness programs should emphasize the richness of Turkey in biological diversity and endemics as well as being of gene centers for many crop species. Then, the public awareness and local community participation program for effective in situ conservation should be developed in nation-wide. The voluntary organizations should also be involved in the public awareness programs on gene conservation and their activities related to conservation issues should be supported. It is appropriate that the Ministry of Environment could coordinate as well as implement the public awareness and participation programs dealing in situ conservation of plant genetic resources in the whole country.

 

 

 

D. NATIONAL OBJECTIVES, PRIORITIES AND STRATEGIES

 

1. The objective of the National Plan

 

The general objective of "the National Plan for In situ Conservation of Plant Genetic Diversity in Turkey" is to determine the priorities and strategies for effective management and conservation, sustainable utilization and monitoring of genetic diversity in target species and to implement these priorities and strategies in the forms of a national in situ gene conservation program. With this approach, it is not only the plant genetic diversity for target species will be conserved, but also conservation of biological diversity and natural environment will be carried out.

2. Priorities and Strategies

2.1. In situ Conservation

Biodiversity conservation represents diversity at all levels of biological organizations such as the ecosystem, the species, the organisms, the gene. Also, conservation of biodiversity secures the link between the evolutionary past and future survival, adaptation, continuing evolution or decline of species or communities. Therefore, in situ conservation of plant genetic resources can not be thought as apart from biodiversity. There are many approaches and ways of conservation of plant genetic resources within biodiversity context. However, in many cases, plant genetic resources of target plant species may not be efficiently conserved due the ecology, genetics and reproductive biology of the species, conservation status and administrative structure of protected areas. But GMZs seem to be suitable to conserve genetic resources of wild relatives of crop species as well as forest trees in situ due to reasons given in Section A of the Plan.

 

There are many endemic species or economically important plant species in Turkey. To set up GMZs for each of these species or combination of them will be a costly program which can not be funded with the present status of financial sources. Therefore, among the wild relatives of cultivated plants and forest trees, those species with vital genetic resources present in Turkey, globally and nationally important relatives of crop and forest tree species or endangered rare plant species have been listed as target species (Table 8, please see also the Appendix-1 for selection of target species and definition). In situ gene conservation works should be primarily focused on these target species. But with accumulation of data and experiences on in -situ studies as well as globally and nationally changing policies and priorities, the new target species could be added into the in situ gene conservation programs.

 

Considering the taxonomic and genetic richness in the cultivated plants and their wild relatives, it is expected that number of GMZ and target species will be much higher in the crop species than those in forest trees. During the site selection, the priorities should be given to those sites representing core variability in target species as well as sites with rich biodiversity in government owned lands, suitable for long term conservation and funding.

 

The important socio-economic factor that will affect the conservation of plant genetic diversity is the presence of pasture lands close to GMZs. If the technical and legislative regulations related to the use of pastures are not developed, GMZs will not have the function of conservation of genetic diversity and natural vegetations. Therefore, a pasture act which will regulate the use and conservation of pastures is a crucial factor for effective gene resource conservation in pastures.

2.1.1. Wild Relatives of Cultivated Plants and Forest Trees

In Short Term

There are various areas conserved with different purposes and by various institutions such as NP, PF, NCA, NM, NAP, SPER, SIT areas etc. It is necessary to utilize these areas for the conservation of genetic diversity in target species.

 

Despite the difficulties such as the insufficient information on the population genetics, ecology and biology of target species and the cost of GMZ managements, the recognition and initiation of GMZ concept is an important task in conservation. For those indicated as target species, new gene conservation areas should be established as soon as possible by utilizing the species distribution maps or as well as available information for wild relatives of crop species and important forest tree species (Figures B). Even though there is no need for new laws or institutions to determine the GMZ, new regulations are needed. In the short term, with the aid from the existing conservation programs, especially the laws of Forestry and National Parks, the areas with important plant genetic resources should be identified and set aside as NCAs or GCFs as soon as possible.

 

The inventory of plant species and their densities in all protected lands should be completed by considering the distributions and sizes of target species populations in whole country.

 

The factors causing negative environmental changes in conserved areas should be determined, and necessary measures and projects should be developed to eliminate them. An active participation and education programs for local people on in situ conservation will be essential for the success of the effectiveness and continuity of the in situ conservation programs.

 

Since we do not know how management practices will effect the genetic composition of target species in GMZ, any forestry practices in newly established GMZs should be avoided until the management plans for GMZs are prepared.

 

The genetic resources for wild relatives of crop species are conserved in the conservation areas set for forest trees as long as forest habitats allow to do so. However, there is a great need to establish new GMZs for wild relatives of agricultural plants that should also aim to conserve plant genetic resources in pasture lands, especially in highland pastures. For establishment of new GMZs outside forest lands, the sites which are close to MARA -agricultural farms, research institutes, experiment; stations, and nurseries, Ministry of Culture-archaeological ruins, restricted zones of dams should be given the priority.

 

In Long Term

 

In long term, sustained political support and steady funding must be provided for effective in situ conservation of plan genetic resources of target plant species, for professional and technical staff training and for stabilization of institutions which are needed in conservation programs. The funding for in situ conservation of genetic resources of target plant species may be insufficient for genetic objectives in the beginning. In the early stage of the in situ conservation programs, whenever it is possible , the other existing conservation programs in Turkey listed in the section C of this plan, should be used to reduce the cost of the establishing new GMZs. But in long term, independent and alternative funding system should be sought. An estimate for benefit to cost ratio for plant genetic resource- conservation and use work suggests that the investments made in conservation programs will be rewarding not only for investing country but also other countries.

 

The new GMZs for economically important or endangered plant species should be determined by giving the priorities to the target species listed in the Plan.

 

In addition to population genetics of target species, the reproductive biology, autoecology and density of target plant species in GMZs as well as outside GMZs should be studied to generate the data needed for effective in situ gene conservation programs.

For each GMZ, there should be a management plan and the prepared plan should have clear statements about what the target species are and what responsible institutions are. Also, the management plans should include a monitoring program to follow if there will be any evolutionary and biological changes in target species-population as well as other plant species in a given GMZ.

 

The population genetic, ecological and other biological studies and preparation of the administrative plans for GMZs as well as the application of the plan will create extra work load in MOF-FTSIRI and MARA-AARI in terms of laboratory infrastructure, and technical capacity and personnel. Therefore, both FTSIRI and AARI should be developed in a way that they could serve as gene conservation and management centers. Also these institutes should be equipped with a gene conservation data base linked to the national network through TUBİTAK.

Most of the established GMZs will be close to villages or cities where the adverse environmental factors will be present. For well reception of in situ gene conservation programs by the local people, the in situ conservation programs should also provide developmental projects developed by MARA, MOF or MOE, creating new jobs based on conservation of plant genetic resources. Effective programs in GMZs should be initiated by the voluntary organizations to get the public awareness.

 

 

2.1.2. Land Races and Transition Forms

 

In recent years, the crop yields have been increased significantly by using high yielding cultivars and the improvement of agronomy techniques. However, due to various reasons, there are still many farmers who prefer the land races to the modern cultivars. The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs should take measures to conserve the gene resources of land races as well as develop special programs to encourage the farmers to keep using the local land races.

 

The distribution of transitional forms is certainly more limited than the wild relatives and land races. However, even though these forms are rarely found in GMZs, they should be precisely conserved, maintained and evaluated because they can be evaluated quickly in breeding programs due to their advance evolutionary stages.

2.2. Supplementary Programs to in situ Conservation (ex situ conservation)

 

Neither in situ nor ex situ programs alone are adequate to conserve effectively and continuously plant genetic diversity. For various reasons such as the differences in reproductive biology, ecology and physiology of target plant species, in situ conservation programs are needed to be supported by ex situ conservation programs. Ex situ conservation programs in agriculture or forestry are not new in Turkey, but the present status of ex situ conservation is far from being satisfactory. The use of genetic material conserved as ex situ should be encouraged in plant breeding. Furthermore, the extensive information exchange on materials between ex situ units and users is needed.

2.2.1. Wild Relatives of Cultivated species and Forest Trees

 

The ex situ conservation programs are proceeded effectively for the wild relatives of cultivated plants. Especially the conservation programs dealing with seeds are in good condition in Turkey. The conservation of crop species (especially as seeds) should be continued to conserve in seed banks. The materials conserved as seed and vegetative materials do not exactly represent their populations in nature in terms of genetic diversity. The numbers of samples and their sizes in seed banks for the conservation should be revised by conducting the studies on population genetics, reproduction biology and ecology and genetics, as well as considering the concepts of effective population size (EPS) (See Appendix-1 for more information).

 

The number of genotypes in seed orchards and especially number of clones in clone banks should be reviewed by considering the EPS of the species. The new seed orchards and clone banks for the other forest tree species also need to be established. The information on existing provenance and progeny tests should be compiled and if it is necessary, they should be used as ex situ conservation areas.

2.2.2. Cultivated Plant Cultivars

 

The ex situ conservation principles mentioned above for the wild species are also valid for cultivated plants. The cultivar development and their extension studies are proceeded under the frame work of National Projects established for each crop group in the research institutes of the MARA. The representation of the genetic diversity in the populations of species conserved in ex situ should be updated by reviewing the Collection Gardens established for the land races of cultivated woody plants in the agricultural research institutes.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

E. PRIORITY ACTION PLAN

 

1. Legal and Institutional Strengthening

 

1. 1. Legislative and Administrative Revisions

GMZ Frame-work Regulations: The new regulations concerning the establishment and management of GMZs should be prepared. It should facilitate the use of existing conservation programs as well the coordinated works of different institutions in various ministries. GMZs frame-work regulations should define clearly the principles and methods for these cooperative works as well as involving institutions working under the different authorities or ministries so that conservation works can be carried out effectively and continuously. Therefore, the GMZ regulations should be prepared under the supervision of the Minister of Environment with participation of MOF, MARA and other related institutions to outline the responsibilities and authorities of involving institutions.

 

The physical administration and management of GMZs could be given to the various government institutions depending on the ownership of the land in where GMZs are established. If a newly established GMZ is located in the land which already has administrative regulations and has its own legislative status, these kinds of GMZs should be administrated by the existing regulations of the responsible institution(s). But the preparation of GMZ management plans should be under the responsibility of the Regional Board for In Situ Gene Conservation (RBGC).

 

The RBGC should consist of representatives mainly from regional institutions directly responsible for GMZ management as well as representatives from voluntary, other government and local organizations. The RBGC should be also responsible for the preparation of GMZ plan, application of plan and monitoring of genetic diversity of GMZs with cooperation of AARI and FTSIRI. Higher Board for In Situ Gene Conservation (HBGC), which will be responsible for reviewing existing gene conservation programs in nationwide and determining necessary policies in gene conservation issues, should be also formed and based in Ankara.

 

1.2. Coordination of Activities

 

For the successful implementation of 'National Plant for in situ Conservation of Plant Genetic Diversity in Turkey', there is great necessity of establishment of smooth-running coordination and cooperation among three ministries i.e., MOF, MARA and MOE. For this purpose, the coordination among involving institutions for deterring the strategy and policies should be carried out by the HBGC.

Also, for effective public awareness and education on in situ gene conservation and implementation of the National Plan, great coordination between MOE and NGOs is essential. On the other hand, active participation of local people living near by GMZs should be provided before and during the implementation of the National Plan. Also, if the economic losses of local people due to GMZ establishment are occurred , this should be compensated.

 

1.3. Management Responsibilities

 

There is no doubt that the establishment and management of the GMZs need to be based on the legal grounds. At the moment, there is no need for new legislation to establish and manage the GMZs because the existing laws and regulations will provide the legal power needed. The GMZs could be established in existing conservation areas if these areas include the target species. If there is a need for establishing new GMZs, they could be set aside like Nature Conservation Areas if there is no management practices are required in GMZs. If management practices are needed in established GMZs, they could be set aside like GCF and registered in the forestry management plans.

Existence of the wild relatives of the many cultivated plants in a GMZ established in forest lands can be expected. Thus, the cooperation between MARA and MOF is certainly necessary for these types of GMZs. The necessary principles and details of this and other types of GMZs should be clearly stated in the GMZ frame-work regulations. A personnel policy which give the priority to experts needed for in situ gene conservation programs should be adopted by the involving institutions to have continuity and stability in gene conservation works.

 

 

 

 

1.4. Economic Evaluation of in situ Conservation of Plant Genetic Resources

In situ gene conservation programs are long term, requiring experts in the field and quite expensive programs to run. The cost of conservation will increase naturally since there will not be any production the GMZs located in pasture or forest lands. However, it will be difficult to give any figure about the extra cost which will be brought about by establishment of GMZs, however, it is expected that the establishment of new GMZs will cost to the Turkish Government as much as the cost of existing protected lands. But its long term return is expected to be rewarding though it can not be evaluated in standard cost-benefit analysis. But it is recommended that the functions such as climatic regulation, watershed and soil protection, hydrological function, harboring genetic resources, wildlife potential, provision of research and recreational opportunities are values which can not be measured in economical terms. In long term, the establishment of GMZs for forest trees and wild relatives of crop species will be beneficial not only for Turkey, but also for the World.

 

2. Implementation of the Plan

 

2.1 Public Awareness

 

Before the National Plan is implemented, the introduction of the Plan at the national and international levels should be made aggressively and well organized programs for public awareness and active participation of locals should be launched. International scientific and financial organizations should be informed in order to get financial support for the estimated costs in the Plan. The following means could be used for effective public awareness programs for the in situ conservation of the plant genetic resources: The supports from the President and Prime Minister of Turkey, Turkish MOF, MARA, MOE, Ministry of Education, Universities, Presidency of Religious Affairs, the NGOs, Visual and written media and local administrations. To maintain the in situ conservation of biological and genetic diversity subjects in daily agenda in the country, the Ministry of Environment should develop an effective public awareness project in cooperation with the above organizations.

 

2.2 Institutional Arrangements

 

For effective in situ gene conservation programs to be carried out by the responsible institutions, a Higher Board for Gene Conservation (HBGC) should be formed. The HBGC should meet once year and be responsible for reviewing the current and future gene conservation works as well as develop policies for effective in situ gene conservation program.

 

2.3 Funding Methods

A steady-funding is needed to implement successfully the 'National Plan for in situ Conservation of Plant Genetic Diversity in Turkey'. To solve the funding problem in short term, HBGC should be formed as soon as possible to seek the possible financial sources for funding of in situ gene conservation programs. For the implementation of National Plan, there are mainly three financial sources: 1) General Budget Sources, 2) International Sources, 3) Donations to General Budget by gene resource users.

With the quick arrangements in short term, the financial sources can be provided by the local administrations (municipal government, etc.) or transferred from the Environmental Pollution Prevention Fund. In long term, a National Fund should be established for the conservation of genetic diversity.

 

2.4. Priority Research Topics

There is a need to carry out many studies and in different areas which have been already mentioned in the previous sections. Also, a list of research topics on in situ conservation of plant genetic resources have been provided in Appendix 1. The priorities of those research topics should be determined by HGBC and they should be carried out in the early stages of the National Plan by RGBC.

 

NATIONAL PLAN FOR IN SITU CONSERVATION OF PLANT GENETIC DIVERSITY IN TURKEY

A. INTRODUCTION

Vegetation in natural environment existing as forests, meadows, pastures and aquatic formations includes many plants from different families, genera, species, subspecies and varieties. Some physiological and adaptational differences among the individuals can be observed even if they belong to the same species or variety. Plants are unavoidable components of climatic and biological diversity in biosphere since they also establish special habitats for fauna.

 

The phenotypic, morphological and physiological differences among the individual plants, species or variety, are due to the existence of genes, the basic components of inheritance, with different numbers, functions and genotype x environment interactions. The present cultivated plant species used by mankind are domesticated types as the results of natural and artificial selections occurred through long evolutionary processes. The plant species existing as wild and transitional forms in nature are also utilized.

Present plant cultivars are enriched with the genes providing the adaptability to their ecological conditions as well as the needs of mankind. The species and varieties of cultivated plants often have desirable traits provided by the genes transferred from transitional forms and local races. However, looking for new genetic resources is continuing in order to add better characteristics to the cultivars.

On the other hand, many species and their genes are endangered to be extinct by the elimination of genes other than those of the modern high yielding cultivars. Some of these factors such as overutilization, fires and misuses of forest resources, improper grazing and transfer of ranges into farm fields are the causes for the gene erosion. Increase in world population, and in construction of large-scale industrial structures without considering environmental effects and neglecting environmental protective measures, pollution of water, soil and air also cause some plant species to be lost, or endangered.

Mankind faces up to changes in global or national environmental as well as in agricultural and phytopathological conditions, and consumer requirements need to conserve the genes already known and to look for new sources of genes. Needs for new genotypes to solve the new problems in plant breeding led plant breeder to identify new valuable genes in gene banks or wild relatives and transfer them into cultivars. Based on this situation, plant genetic resources in the world should be conserved and genetic diverisity should be enriched by preventing gene erosion, allowing the plants to reproduce and produce new gene combinations. Conservation of plant genetic resources should be done in situ so evolutionary processes continue in natural ecosystem. Occurred evolutionary changes in many wild relatives of crop species, in natural systems, can be captured and utilized in plant breeding for wealth and happiness of future generations. To achieve this purpose, the genetic diversity should be conserved by considering appropriate, realistic and efficient approaches.

From the geographical point of view, the Middle East is rich in flora and plant genetic diversity. In this part of the world Turkey has obviously high number of plant species which is above than those in each of its neighbors. With its richness in genetic diversity, Turkey has a unique position. Two important gene centers (Near East and Mediterranean) described by Vavilov (1951) are located in the country. Besides these two gene centers, Turkey is also diversity center for many wild, transitional and cultivated forms of annual and perennial, herbaceous and woody plants (Table 1).

 

Studies conducted have shown that there are 163 families (1225 genera and 8745 species) of vascular plants in Turkey and 2763 of them are endemic species. Turkey is also gene center of some forest trees (fir, spruce, cedar, juniper, sweet gum etc.) and wild relatives of cultivated plants (wheat, barley, lentil, chickpea, apple, pear, cherry, walnut, pistachio, chestnut etc.) which are crop plants of world-wide importance (Table 1).

Turkey has not only wide diversity in climate and geography but also is the bridge between Europe, Asia and Africa continents. The immigrations of different cultures and life styles between these continents in the past have not only brought many relatives of crop plants in cultivation today, but also fostered the distribution and the evolution of many cultivated forms of crop species. As results of climatic diversity, different civilizations, immigrations and natural selections, many cultivated forms and land races of crop species have been evolved in Turkey.

The richness of plant genetic diversity in Turkey is essential for continuation of a crop improvement and agriculture in the temperate zone of the World. However conservation of genetic diversity of cultivated plants, their wild relatives, transitional forms and forest trees with global importance were generally ignored or not considered when the actions on protection of nature and biological diversity are the issues. Efficient conservation of genetic diversity in wild relatives of cultivated plants, their primitive forms and important forest trees are also needed for effectiveness and continuation of plant breeding researches on agriculture and forestry in Turkey as well as in the world.

It has been demonstrated that contribution of in situ conservation of plant genetic resources in one country can have great value for the economics and plant breeding programs of other countries in the World. In crop breeding programs, especially, disease -resistance breeding programs such as in wheat and barley face with the loss of resistance mechanisms for pathogens since evolutionary processes are more rapid and continuous in pathogen side than in crop side. Since materials for developing resistant lines are provided from ex situ gene banks, therefore, evolutionary potential is not fully realized. Such cases, crop breeders have to incorporate resistant genes for pathogens from in situ materials. For wheat and barley disease resistance breeding programs, in situ materials from Turkey have been frequently used (Hoyt 1992). Best examples for forest trees are two North American tree species, Monterey pine ( Pinus radiata) and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.). Monterey pine is currently planted in large areas covering about four million hectares outside North America. But this species has no commercial value in the USA and it is managed only for aesthetic values while economic value of the species in countries such as Australia, New Zealand and Chile is immense (Rogers and Ledig 1996). Similarly black locust is used to restore the disturbed habitats such as mine fields and eroded lands in many countries outside the USA since nitrogen fixing capacity of the species can improve site quality so that native species re-invade.

 

Considering the diversity of Anatolian civilizations, it is easily understood that the plant genetic diversity has been under the pressure and destruction by war and immigrations, improper cutting, overgrazing and ploughing by the population increase and destructive utilization of nature. Due to long term improper utilization of nature, the original structure of plant genetic diversity has been continued to change. For example, the areas of a chick pea form (Cicer arietinum ssp. reticulatum) which was commonly existed in large areas in Anatolia in the past, is considerably restricted to relatively less grazed rocky areas now. Other species affected by excessive utilization are walnut (Juglans regia), Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani ), sweet gum (Liquidambar orientalis) and elm tree . Conservation of genetic resources of such plant species will provide very valuable genetic resources for agricultural and forestry activities in Turkey as well as in other countries in the World.

Several ex situ conservation programs such as gene banks, clone banks, collection gardens were established in many countries up to today, in order to conserve genetic diversity in plant species. They contain also samples from Turkish flora. However the ex situ programs represent only very small portion of genetic diversity in Turkish flora. Meanwhile, ex situ conservation does not allow continued evolutionary changes in plant populations due to lack of interactions between plants and their environments.

For the maintenance of genetic diversity which has important role in development of cultivated plants, complex interactions and evolutionary changes are needed. In situ conservation is dynamic and provides for co-evolution of the target species with other organizms. The purpose of in situ conservation programs is to conserve variable populations of target species in their natural environment so that their genetic diversity can be maintained. Generally to allow continued complex interactions plant among plants, animals, micro-organisms and their environments and subsequent evolution of species and population, lands of adequate size are set aside and genetic resources of target species are managed to ensure their continued health and survival. There are various approaches for in situ conservation of genetic resources of wild relatives of crop species and forest tree species. For example, for non-commercial species, ecosystem reserves such as national parks (passive in situ conservation) may be the most economical approach. However, one type of in situ conservation program that is the Gene Management Zone (GMZ) approach (or Genetic Resources Management Units (GRMU)) seems to be more suitable for wild relatives of crop species and commercially important tree species: The primary function of GMZs is the protection of genetic resources either a single target species or entire community, but it could be also managed for other economic benefits such as grazing and timber harvesting as long as the other uses do not threaten the primary function of GMZ. In site selection or population selection, highest priority is to capture the core variability within the species in the areas that represent the variability of the region.

 

The Ministry of Forestry and The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of Turkey have experiences in planning and application of in situ and ex situ conservation programs, respectively. In situ conservation of wild relatives of agricultural plants has not been practiced extensively. However, it might be considered that the genetic diversity of many wild relatives of crop as well as other economically important plant species are represented in the protected areas (National Parks, Nature Conservation Areas, Nature Parks, Forest Seed Stands etc.). In any case, priority for the revisions on the adequacy of protected areas is needed to determine the number of wild relatives of crop species as well as other species which are present in protected areas.

 

In addition, a comprehensive in situ program should be prepared in accordance with the status and structure of genetic diversity in the natural populations of the wild relatives of cultivated plants and important forest trees existing in and outside conservation areas. Plenty of wild relatives of cultivated plants (for example walnut, chestnut, fruit trees, geophytes, medicinal and aromatic plants) are naturally found in the forests and conservation areas in Turkey. However, wild herbaceous relatives of the cultivated plants (wild wheats, legumes etc.) are inadequately represented in forest lands. Meanwhile there is no country-wide program for conservation and management of their genetic diversity in selected areas.

There are not many comprehensive or detailed in situ conservation programs for the gene resources of wild relatives of cultivated plants, important forest trees in the world. The existing programs are limited to a few species in a few countries. Therefore, Turkey as origin of gene resources of many forest trees, important cultivated plants, their wild relatives, is a country in the position to develop a program for in situ conservation of plant genetic diversity.

 

An in situ conservation project supported first time by a special fund (Global Environment Facility, GEF) of The World Bank has been conducted in Turkey. This pilot project aimed to conserve the genetic diversity of wild relatives of cultivated plants and forest tree species with global importance. Studies were initiated in 1993 by the Ministries of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (MARA), Forestry (MOF), and Environment (MOE). The objectives of this project were to train research scientists in various aspects of in situ conservation and upgrade the laboratory facilities in research institutes of MARA and MOF, to establish in situ conservation programs for conserving genetic diversity of target species selected in pilot sites (Kazdağı and Bolkar mountains, and Ceylanpınar State Farm), as well as to develop in situ GMZ concept which can be used for other species throughout the country. To achieve the last goal and to incorporate GMZs concept and experiences from the project into existing conservation programs, the MOE was asked to prepare a 'National Plan for in situ conservation of genetic diversity in Turkey, (Here on, it will just be referred to as The National Plan). A draft copy of the National Plan was prepared in January 1995 and the copies of The National Plan were sent out to involving institutions within the country to get views of in-country experts. The draft National Plan was also presented to the International Symposium held on " In Situ Conservation of Plant Genetic Diversity" on November 4-8, 1996 in Antalya, Turkey to solicit the views of the international experts. After the comments and criticisms from both in-country as well as international experts in the field were received, they were incorporated to the present version of the National Plan.

 

The main objectives and expectations of the National Action Plan for in situ conservation of plant genetic diversity in Turkey could be summarized as follow:

 

1) The Turkish National Plan for in situ conservation of plant genetic diversity is the first example of the field in the world. Therefore, this final version is expected to be a good example for the similar programs in other countries.

 

2) The implementation of the National Plan for in situ conservation of selected (target) species of the wild relatives of herbaceous and woody plants and important forest trees will provide efficiency and continuity in conservation programs in Turkey by establishing GMZs for target species throughout the country.

 

3) Since the GMZs are accepted as one of the most effective ways of in situ conservation allowing the evolutionary changes and continuity of genetic diversity in target species in the National Plan, the alternatives for the selection criteria, management responsibility and policy for GMZs, as well as the methods for utilization of genetic material from GMZs will be also developed for the target species with special requirements.

 

4) Basic purposes of all environmental actions in the world are to prevent the environmental problems before they occur, and to sustain the quality and quantity of the biotic and abiotic components in ecosystems. With the implementation of the National, the plant genetic resources which are seriously threatened by various environmental problems will be efficiently conserved and managed in situ.

 

B. THE STATUS OF PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES IN TURKEY

1. Species Richness

The richness of species diversity of Turkey has been emphasized in many publications. Especially after the publication of Flora of Turkey and East Aegean Islands (Davis,1965-1985; Davis et al. 1988) with 10 Volumes, studies on Turkish flora have been accelerated. The studies motivated by above publication have also shown the richness in species diversity in Turkey, especially in ferns, seed- and primitive plants. However, detailed and complete floristic studies on primitive plants native to Turkey have not been conducted yet. The book, Biological Diversity of Turkey, which was published by Turkish Environment Foundation in 1987 includes substantial information about status of different plant groups. On the other hand, all publications on Turkish flora and natural vegetation can be found in the Bibliography by Demiriz (1993), published by TUBİTAK. Turkish Plant Names (Baytop 1994) published by the Council of Turkish Language Studies also exhibits floristic richness of the country.

 

Turkey in temperate climatic belt has large diversity of habitats due to the diversity in its geomorphology, topography and climate. As a result, Turkey is very rich in plant species. The numbers of fern and seed plant species native to Turkey are 8575 (Table 2). The new records on new species are being added to this list. For example, 135 plant species were added until the end of 1993 (Özhatay, Kültür and Aksoy, 1994). The recent studies have revealed that the total number of species of ferns and seed plants are about 8745.

 

Twenty families with the highest number of species in Turkey, as well as total number of species, number of natural, cultivated, introduced and endemic species are given in Table 2. Economically important families of Leguminosae, Cruciferae, Gramineae, Umbelliferae, and Rosaceae are also in this list. In addition to above families, Labiateae with many medicinal plants is also in this list (Table 3). It can be concluded that economically important plant families include many species in Turkey. This increases the importance and responsibility of Turkey in conservation of plant genetic resources.

  

 2. Endemic and Endangered Species

 

According to the of Flora of Turkey and East Aegean Islands Volume 10, there are 2763 endemic plant species in Turkey. It means that 31.59 % of natural flora is endemic (Table 2).The families in Table 3 and the genera in Table 4, both those families and genera with large number of species are also the families and genera with the large numbers of endemic species. For instance, family Compositeae with the largest species number, is also with the highest number of endemic species. The genus Astralagus within the Leguminosae family is the genus which is high in number of total as well as of endemic species.

When the subspecies and varieties are considered, the total number of endemic taxa native to the country rises to 3747 (Y.Gemici, personal communication). The geographic and phytogeographic distributions of the taxa are presented in Table 5. The Central, Southern and Eastern Turkey among the geographic regions and the Iran-Turan and Mediterranean among the phytogeographic regions include the highest numbers of endemic taxa.

A comprehensive classification for the complete endangerment status of plant species in Turkey has not been conducted yet. However, the study carried out by Ekim et al. (1989) classified the endemic and rare plant species based on the old criteria of IUCN (Table 6). The “not threatened” class were not included in their list. As it can be seen in Table 6, there are 8 species in "extinct", 46 in "endangered", 183 in "vulnerable", 1701 in "rare", 5 in "out of danger" and 798 in neither "rare" nor "threatened" categories. In this study, 49 and 282 endemic species are classified as “unknown” and “insufficiently known”, respectively.

 

Güner and Zielenski (1996) classified the woody plants of Turkey according to the new endangerment categories of IUCN (Table 7). The Table presents all the woody plants except those (such as Astragalus) whose taxonomic classification is not completely clear yet. Results of this study showed that 84 of the studied 569 species are endemic, while 3 taxa are extinct, 1 taxon is critically endangered and 5 taxa are vulnerable. Numbers of the taxa in “lower risk” category were 10 and 95 in the “conservation dependent” and “near threatened” subcategories, respectively. Twenty-two taxa were not evaluated due to lack of data. The endangerment classification of all plant species in Turkey needs to be updated according to the new categories and data.

 

3. Plants in Economical Use

The richness of Turkish flora is an important source for the utilization of plants with different purposes. Many plant species of flora are used as food, drug raw material, wood etc. Economically important plants can be classified as Field Crops (cereals, legumes, industrial plants, forage plants), Horticultural Plants (vegetables, fruits, ornamentals), Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, and Forest Trees (Table 1). The wild and transitional forms of many cultivated plants in the country are also found as genetic sources.

 

Field Crops: This group includes the cereals and legumes, forage and industrial plants in agriculture. The most important field crops whose diversity or gene centers existed in or around Anatolia are the followings:

a) Cereals: The wheat species (Triticum spp., 6 cultivated species of total and some 19 wild species such as Aegilops spp.); barley (Hordeum 2-rowed and 6- rowed); rye (Secale spp., S. cereale and its 4 wild species plus Dasypyrum villosum), oats (Avena sativa, A. byzantina and 6 wild species). Although corn (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa) which originated from gene centers out of Turkey, show wide variation in land races due to special ecological conditions of the country.

On the other hand, the production areas of some cereal species or varieties such as in wheat (Triticum monococcum-einkorn and T.dicoccum-emmer), canary grass (Phalaris canariensis), grain and forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Moench), proso millet (Panicum miliaceum), foxtail millet (Setaria italica) become almost absent in the list of field crops. Gene resources of these and similar plants should be conserved in certain ecological areas.

 

b) Edible Legumes: Turkey exhibits large diversity for the edible and food legumes. The main plants in this group are chickpea (Cicer spp., C. arietinum and 9 wild species), lentil (lens spp.), bean (Phaseolus spp), and pea (Pisum sativum and subtaxa, P. fulvum).

 

c) Industrial Plants: Most of the plants in this group are grown to produce raw material for industry. This group can be divided into subgroups such as oil seed plants, fiber plants, starch-sugar plants, medicinal plants, and spice plants. The examples for these groups in Turkey are as follow: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), rape (Brassica napus), peanut (Arachis hypogea), oil and fiber flax (Linum ussitatissimum), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and hemp (Cannabis sativa); sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), potato (Solanum tuberosum), Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) opium poppy (Papaver somniferum); tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), anise (Pimpinella anisum), cumin (Cuminum cyminum), hop (Humulus lupulus), rose (Rosa damascena) and etc..

Beside the above listed plants grown in Turkish agriculture fields; Syrian scabious (Cephalaria syriaca) and Boreava orientalis-first one is for oil, and the second is for oil and protein source, white soapwort (Gypsophilla bicolor) plants have also potential values. Orchids (Orchideaceae), licorice (Glycyrrhiza sp.) and yellow gentian (Gentiana lutea) are important plants used as raw material in alcohol industry. Woad (Isatis spp.), walnut (Juglans regia), madder (Rubia tinctoria), alkanna root (Alkanna spp.) are used for obtaining the dye. Sweet gum tree (Liquidambar orientalis) can also be considered as an industrial plant.

 d) Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: This group includes the species used as medicinal, spice or aromatic purposes. Some of them are cultivated while most of them are collected as wild in nature and in common use in local or extended areas. For example licorice (Glycyrrhiza, 1 species),orchid (Orchis), laurel (Laurus), thyme (Thymus, 37 species and sweet marjoram (Origanum, 2-3 species of 21), ironwood worth (Sideritis, some of 38 species), Salvia (2-3 species of 87), anise (Pimpinella anisum and 22 wild species), capers (Cappari spp.), rose (Rosa canina), fox glove (Digitalis spp.,9 wild species), semmon tonsy (Tanacetum coccineum; insect killer) and lady's thistle Slybium marianum are in this group.

 

e) Forage Plants : Forage crops are the main source for feeding animals and raw material for feed industry. Their production area is very small, sharing only 2.5 % of the total cultivated area of the country. Although some of the field crops mentioned above are also important feed sources, total feed production is insufficient. Therefore, the grazing of government pastures can not be ignored or avoided in animal production.

 

Pastures in coastal, and especially steppe pastures have lost their productivity due to continuos and irregular grazing. However, Turkish pastures and meadows contain many plant species of legumes (Leguminoseae), grasses (Gramineae) and other families. Broad bean (Vicia faba), bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia), the other Vicias and their 57 wild species, chickling wetch (Lathyrus, 59 wild species), sainfoin (Onobrychis, 52 wild species), clover (Trifolium,95 wild species), alfalfa (Medicago, 30 species) and sweet clover (Melilothus,10 species) are main forage legumes.

 

Horticultural Plants: The main production of these plants are obtained from the cultivation while their wild forms are partly collected from nature.

 

a) Fruits: Pears (Pyrus communis and 10 wild species), apples (Malus sylvestris subsp. mitis and its wild relatives, M.sylvestris ssp.orientalis), plums and their relatives (Prunus spp., P. domestica and 4 wild species), cherry and its wild relatives (Cerasus spp., C. avium, C. vulgaris and 8 wild species), grape wine (Vitis), cherry laurel (Laurocerasus officinalis) wild and cultivated forms, walnut (Juglans regia), almond (Amygdalus communis and 12 wild species), pistachio and mastic tree (Pistacia vera, Pistacia lentiscus and 5 wild species), hazelnut (Corylus maxima, C.avellana, C.colurna), chestnut (Castanea sativa) wild and cultivated forms, fig (Ficus carica) wild and cultivated forms, olive (Olea europeae) wild and cultivated forms.

 

b) Vegetables: Lettuce (Lactuca sativa and 7 wild species), onion and relative species (Allium cepa, A.sativum, A. porrum) and 143 wild species, sugar beet (Beta and 8 wild species), carrot (Daucus carota and 4 wild species), cabbage and relative species (Brassica oleracea, B. rapa, B. napus, and 5 wild species).

 

c) Ornamentals: In the Turkish flora, there are many plant species with attractive flowers, good ground cover, dwarf or high shrubs and trees which have potential value to be used for many landscaping purposes. However, it is difficult to say that this potential is fully realized and adequately utilized. The important ornamental plants in commercial use are bulbous, tuberous, rhizomous plants. Since the Galanthus, Sternbergia, Cyclamen, Anemone, Eranthis species among them are picked directly from the nature and used, their collection should be regulated with special attention. The plants (except for those collected directly from nature) are grown from their seed, shoot, rhizome and tubers and shipped to commercial markets. Collection and exportation of these plants are arranged by special regulations.

 

Forest Trees: The plants in this group include the natural or cultivated species used as fuel wood, or timber in industry. The forest trees also serve for protective (prevention of erosion and climatic, hydrologic and air pollution) and recreational purposes. Important forest trees are the followings: Pine species (Pinus brutia, P. nigra, P. sylvestris, P.halepensis and P.pinea (Stone pine), fir species (Abies nordmanniana subsp. nordmanniana, Abies nordmanniana subsp. bornmulleriana, Abies nordmanniana subsp. equitrojani, Abies cilicica subsp. cilicica, Abies cilicica subsp. isaurica), true cedar (Cedrus libani), beech (Fagus orientalis), oriental spruce (Picea orientalis), linden (Tilia), red alder spp. (Alnus spp.,2 species, total 6 taxa), ,junipers (Juniperus spp., 8 species), oaks (Quercus, about 20 species). poplar (Populus spp.) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus) are the most important forest trees in cultivation

 

4. Factors Reducing Plant Genetic Diversity

Being a bridge between Europe and Asia where many ancient civilizations lived, natural land structures in Anatolia have been changed due to long term human impacts on natural resources. It is generally accepted that present vegetation as a steppe vegetation dominant in most of the country is the result of long termed antropogenic effects. The changes have become faster in the last century. Faster change in dangerous dimensions is especially due to the rapid population growth in recent decades. Particularly after 1950s, mechanization in agriculture, increase in the industrialization and tourism activities have increased the pressure on biological diversity that is beyond the carrying capacity of the lands. The most important sequences of these effects are the reduction and fragmentation of natural habitats.

 

Before discussing the main activity areas which result in habitat fragmentations and erosion in plant genetic resources, it will be useful to point out the main factors leading such activities to be increased. These factors have been also addressed in Turkish Biodiversity Action Plan (Kün et al. 1995; Işık et al. 1995). Here the important ones will be discussed. These factors are: (1) Considerable portion of the population of Turkey still lives in the rural areas close to forest or pasture lands and they depend on fuel wood for heating and cooking. Also people living in rural areas are the people with low incomes. With the current population growth rate, the demand for natural resources will increase in the future. Therefore, developmental projects for improving the life styles of these people are essential for continuity and effectiveness of conservation programs dealing with natural resources, (2) There are still large areas in Turkey which are mainly forest and pasture lands and there are agricultural lands within such areas. To determine the ownership of such agricultural lands, cadastral works have to be completed in whole country. Otherwise, many forest and pasture land habitats will be lost for agricultural purposes, (3) Due to urbanization and touristic developments in recent years, there is an increasing pressure on forest, pasture and even agricultural lands. Without strict land-use regulations, it is very difficult keep those habitats very long. Therefore, environmental as well as natural resources impact assessment should be required before any developmental or industry related projects are implemented.

 

The list of activities which have direct or indirect effects on the plant genetic resources in Turkey have been discussed in detail below.

 

 

 

4.1 Agricultural Activities

Agriculture is the leading one among sectors related directly to nature. The damages caused by the agricultural practices are the soil erosion, pollution due to excessive amounts of fertilizer and chemical uses (herbicides, pesticides), misuse of pasture lands, drying of wetlands, and destroying the flora and fauna. The main agricultural practices with negative effects are as follow.

 

1) Ploughing Pastures for Cultivation: In spite of decrease of rural population percentage in total population of the country (81.5 % in 1950, fell to 45.5 % in 1990), the increase in agricultural population has continued, resulting in need to new agricultural areas. Mechanization in agriculture, as well as governmental support for cereal production were extended after 1950s. These factors led to expansion of agricultural areas for the expense of forest and pasture lands.

 

It is generally considered that the pastures are the main source of the field areas. Most of the crop fields in the world today were obtained by some way or another, either from forest or pastures. Fertile forest or pasture soils under natural vegetation were changed into cultivation areas. So, in case of absolute need, ploughing some of the grazing lands and farming for crop species can be considered as a natural process.

 

However this process in Turkey has taken place so fast and without much regulation, that more than 15 million hectares of pastures were ploughed in last 40-50 years without any arrangement and regulation of the State. Furthermore, for some of the ploughed pasture lands under the ownership of the state, title-deeds were issued to the persons who ploughed up these lands- so this illegal application was awarded. As a result, the total agricultural area is extended in such dimensions which include marginal areas with low fertility and under the heavy pressure of soil erosion. Cultivated marginal farm lands obtained from pastures are around 3-4 million hectares. Extension of cultivated areas against pasture and forest lands is still continuing.

Furthermore, about 33 % (25.3 mil. hectares) of the total area (76.6 mil. hectares) of the country is used without considering the land use capability classes of the soils. Cultivation of pastures and destruction of nature will unfortunately continue if the efficient measures are not taken.

 

2) Over Grazing in Pastures: Rapid increase of population resulted also in increase in live stock number on the publicly owned pasture lands. The right of use of pastures belongs to the local people living in rural area. However, the government did not develop any regulation on how the people should use and care these lands. Local people in rural areas release their animals for grazing in these public lands without any limitation in animal number and grazing period.

 

As only 50 % of the pastures should be grazed in arid and semiarid regions which cover the most of the country, the research results indicate that this percentage is above 90 % in the country. These results clearly show that the pastures in Turkey are over-grazed with 2.4 times more animals than the carrying capacity of pastures permits.

Ever continuing over-grazing which does not give any recuperating period for the pastures. Furthermore, frequent hard winter and drought years cause pastures to become physiologically weaken, with reduced diversity and forage yield. Specially the most palatable plant species by animals in pastures are decreased due to overgrazing. This practice has destroyed the natural structure of many pastures so that erosion is extremely increased, endangering these lands to be lost. The most effective factor weakening plant composition in pastures, is the selective overgrazing and successive changes in pastures. The valuable forage plant resources are lost or can be seen only in small patches which are protected by the thorny plants where the animals can not graze freely. Shortly, the biological and floristic diversity losses occur in ecosystem due to over-grazing.

3) Burning the Stubble: Most of the agricultural lands in the country are devoted to cereals. Almost every year the stubble of cereals are burned. Especially burning in cereal fields harvested high from the ground has been commonly practiced in last 25-30 years. With this practice, grasses around the field, living organism in the soil and a lot of small animals are killed, organic material needed for soils is lost, and the soil is exposed to erosion. Burning the stubble sometimes causes more damages since the fire expands the adjacent experimental field plots.

 By the modifications made in article Nr. 4114 of Turkish Punishment Law in 1995, burning stubble or any vegetation has been forbidden within the belt of 4 km of the forest lands, and within borders of villages mentioned in paragraphs 31. and 32. of the Forest Law. However, the stubble burning is still practiced in the agricultural areas. For efficiency of the recent legislative measures released by Ministries, details of limitations should be conveyed to the farmers in order to inform them that there will not be given any concession.

 

 

4) Excessive Use of Fertilizer and Chemical: As the results of increasing agricultural activities, excessive use of fertilizer and chemicals in some regions of the World is also increased. This excessive use causes to the pollution of the sensitive environments as well as to the destruction of the natural habitats around the farm fields. Excessive use of fertilizer is not wide-spread in Turkey yet. However, threats to biological and genetic diversity of Turkey by accelerating soil and water pollution may increase in future. Especially frequent use of highly leachable nitrogen fertilizers should be considered as a potential danger. The most dramatic results of excessive fertilizers use observed in some countries should be avoided in Turkey before it will be too late.

 

5) Extension of High Yielding Cultivars: For the purpose of high yield and quality products, new genetic lines or cultivars in agricultural production are extended almost all over the country. Thus, the local varieties of different crops have lost their acreage or completely disappeared. Most of these local genotypes which can not compete with the modern high yielding cultivars, have some desired agronomic or quality characteristics which need to maintained in farm fields. Therefore, their disappearance should be urgently prevented.

 

4.2 Industrialization, Urbanization and Construction

The rapid population increase and low income in the rural areas have led to the migration of people to cities. Then the industrial and settlement around the cities have been increased fast, mostly by using natural vegetation and agricultural areas. At the beginning of the industrial development, the environmental protection technologies were not known. So, the industry was a primary polluting factor which destroyed some areas (as in Murgul copper industry example). The residues from industrial and urban settlements have polluted natural environments and reduced biological resources. In recent years, rapid increase in industrial developments has already threatened the natural resources including plant genetic resources in some areas in Turkey.

 

The construction of airports, highways, energy transferring lines, dams and irrigation ponds are continuing in the country. While the construction of these structures are needed for the national economy, the vegetation around them is also damaged during the construction. For example, rough stony material extracted during these construction are spread around so that the vegetation around these valuable structures will not grow at least for a while.

The coal, sand and metal mining without considering natural environment, and briquette-tile factories close to cities are important factors polluting nature and vegetation. These activities whose purposes are usually to get highest profit with least expenses pollute the environment, destroy the vegetation, and leave a destroyed environment after their production is over. The environments they left are so densely polluted that the development of a natural or artificial vegetation is extremely limited in these places. Thus, before any industrial as well as housing development is constructed in a given site, the environmental and biological impact assessment for such complexes should be conducted and necessary improvement should be implemented in advance.

4.3 Collecting Plants From Nature

 

Many wild vegetable and fruit, medicinal, spice and ornamental plant species grown in nature are collected and sold in or out of the country. The collectors consider that trade of these plants is additional income source for them. They unconsciously collect the under or above ground parts of plants and sell them.

 

These plants are the followings: Sage (Salvia), iron worth (Sideritis), thyme (Thymus and Origanum spp.), orchids (Orchis spp.), snow flake (Leucojum aestivum), autumn crocus or meadow crocus (Colchicum), cyclamen (Cyclamen spp.), lily (Lilium spp.),winter ling (Eranthis hyemalis), snow drop (Galanthus), windflower (Anemone blanda), anemone (Anemone coronaria), yellow gentian (Gentiana lutea), indigo plant (Isatis spp.), madder root (Rubia tinctoria), gromwell (Alkanna tinctoria), myrte (Myrtus communis), laurell (Laurus nobilis), hemlock (Conium maculatum), wild ginger (Arum italicum) and etc.

 

Number of native and foreign companies collecting and selling plant species listed above have increased in recent decade. Turkey is the primary seller or exporter of these plants in the world after Greece and Spain. Especially foreign amateur and professional collectors visit country and avoid the permission to collect and take away the productive parts of plants such as seeds, bulbs and tubers to their countries for trade. The digging and abroad selling are regulated lately to stop the excessive collection of the plants with bulbs, tuber and rhizomes. However collection and exportation of orchids which are extensively used in the country could not be regulated successfully yet though illegal digging in nature and exportation have been banned since 1974.

The digging, production and exportation of the bulbs of natural flowers in Turkey are under control through the Regulation passed on 08.11.1995 by the Ministry of Agricultural and Rural Affairs. “The Export List of Natural Flowers’ Bulbs” are annually prepared according to the sixth paragraph of the Regulation. The plants in this list is grouped in three classes, namely the export of bulb is “Free”, “Limited with number, size or quota” and “The banned”. The quotas of 0.01 -9 million bulbs for each of 11 species were permitted. Limitations of the bulb size were also brought.

 

The species commonly collected in nature whose exportation were forbidden are the followings: Wild onion (Allium), autumn or meadow crocus (Colchicum), lily (Lilium spp.), tulips (Tulipa spp.), hyacinth (Muscari spp. and Eminium spp.), sternbergia (except Sternbergia lutea ), fritillary (Fritillaria spp.) except the F. imperialis and F.persica, Biarum spp., water lily (Nymphaeaceae), orchids (Orchideceae), wild ginger (Arum creticum), sea daffodil (Pancratium maritimum), oriental hyacinth (Hyacinthus orientalis), yellow gentian (Gentiana lutea), cyclamen (except the Cyclamen coum, C.cilicicum and C.hederiflium), snow drop (except the Galanthus -G.elwesii and G.ikariae), iris (except for iris-I.tuberosum). The regulations should be fully applied. To prevent the illegal trade of parts of plant species listed above, MARA , MOF and MOE should develop new projects to propagate commercially these plant species in farm lands.

 

4.4 Forestry Activities and Fires

 

About 20000 hectares of forest per year are lost because of forest fires and 60000 hectares of forest are destroyed to open land for cultivation. Ministry of Forestry has introduced mechanization to reforest or afforest large areas in recent years. The conservation of genetic diversity especially for adaptation should not be ignored when deciding which tree species will be used in afforesting, reforesting or renewal activities.

Uncontrolled grazing, illegal cutting and improper utilization of forest resources, and the gaseous, liquid or solid discharges from the factories, and the rapid population growth, the extension of settlement areas, and the networks of highways and energy lines also cause to damages. On the other hand, in managed forests, regeneration of large areas should be avoided. Regeneration practices should be practiced in small areas.

 

4.5 Tourism

Tourism is one of sectors that cause the environmental problems which have been in the agenda of Turkey during last 15-20 years. With the arrangement of nature tourism, untouched habitats are opened to local, national and international tourism. The most sensitive ecosystems are affected by tourism activities, and specific regions are under the pressure of tourism. The shore and most recently the upland areas devoted to second housing or tourism structures have lost their natural vegetation even if some enterprises have showed extra care in conservation of nature. On the other hand, it is clear that the incomes obtained from the tourism within the local or national dimensions have significant contribution to economy. The problem can be overcome by producing new projects supporting the idea that each investment and activity should be appropriate and nature friendly.

 

5. Geographic Regions for Conservation of Genetic Diversity

 

Anatolia as a whole appears to have a continental characteristics when the distribution areas of economically important plant species and their wild relatives are considered. In this point of view, especially the Southeastern Anatolia, the Mediterranean region (especially the Central Taurus Mountains), the Salt Lake vicinity, the Anatolian Diagonal (from Ahırdağ to the Kackar Mountains) are attracting special attention. In terms of plant genetic diversity, the country has many species needed to be conserved. However, the list of species with higher priority for conservation (the target species) and their distribution areas are given in Table 7 and in the maps in Figures B in Appendix-2, respectively. Target species have been identified with the criteria developed in Appendix-1 and the suggestions made by the MARA, MOF and MOE, based on the global and local importance of the species, being endemic, having economic importance and being wild relatives of crop species. With the consideration of the natural distribution, the special conservation programs for these target species in representative populations should be prepared.

Southeastern Turkey : This area is very important for wheat (Triticum, Figure B-1), lentil (Lens, Figure B-2), chickpea (Cicer, Figure B-3), peas (Pisum, Figure B-4). The tree species of pistachio (Pistacia), Euphratus poplar (Populus euphratica), oak (Quercus brantii), red pine (Pinus brutia), pseudo-walnut (Pterocarya fraxinifolia) are to be conserved in this region. The specific places where the wild flora can be protected in this region should be defined. The conservation programs should be prepared by taking into consideration of the flora and fauna affected with micro-climatic changes and irrigated farming due to Southeastern Anatolian Project (GAP).

 

Mediterranean Region: This is the most important region for the forest trees (Figures B.7-10) and wild plant species. Endemic species rate is also very high. The chickpea (Cicer, Figure B-3), medicinal and aromatic plants (Sideritis spp.-ironwood worth, Origanum spp.-sweet marjoram, Figure B-18), laurell (Laurus nobilis), caper (Capparis spinosa) and bulbous-tuberous plants (Orchids) have the priority in this region. The region is also very important for forest trees (Taurus cedar-Cedrus libani, Taurus fir -Abies cilicica (Figure B-7), beech-Fagus, junipers-Juniperus) and olive (Olea). In addition to the existing national parks and nature conservation areas, the Amanos Mountains which are crucial areas in this region for floristic characteristics should be included new in conservation program. Touristic and constructional structures, grazing, converting pastures into farm fields and digging plants in nature without regulations are the main factors threatening the flora of region.

 

Aegean and Marmara Regions: As it is in case of Mediterranean Region, there are many wild relatives of cultivated plants (Triticum -wheat, Cicer -chickpea, Vicia faba -broad bean) and forest trees (Figures B.5-8) as well as many endemic species in both of these regions. Aegean region is very rich in orchids (Orchis), sweet marjoram (Origanum), ironwood worth (Sideritis), and walnut (Juglans regia), stone pine (Pinus pinea), Kazdağı fir (Abies nordmanniana ssp. equi-trojani), olive (Olea europea); almond (Amygdalus communis), sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), while the Marmara region is rich in chestnut (Castanea sativa), alder (Alnus), hornbeam (Carpinus) species. Adequacy of the present conservation programs in the regions should be reviewed. These two regions are heavily influenced by industrialization, establishment of new structures, opening new field areas, tourism, and soil salinity.

 

Eastern Anatolia Region: This region has very high rate of endemic species. It is rich especially in forage plant species. This region is important area for the collection of the some cultivated plants such as Triticum-wheat (Figure B-1), Beta -sugar beet (Figure B -15), Lens - lentil (Figure B-2), Medicago -alfalfa, Trifolium -clover, Vicia -vetch, Onobrychis -sainfoin, Lathyrus -chickling vetch (Figure B-6), Lactuca-lettuce (Figure B-13), Allium -onion (Figure B-14). This region has many fruit species (Prunus, Cerasus and Amygdalus -stone fruits species (Figure B-11), Pyrus-pear (Figure B-12), forest trees as Quercus-oaks (Figure B-9), Betula -birch, Ulmus - elm. Thymus -thyme (Figure B-19), Glycyrrhiza -liqurice, Gypsophila -chalk plant-) and many other plants with bulbs, tubers and rhizomes are also very common in the region. Factors affecting the flora of the region are the grazing, opening new farm fields, and excessive use of pastures. It is the region where the existing conservation programs are not adequate.

 Black Sea Region: This region is important for forest tree species as Pinus -pine (Figure B-10), Abies -fir ( Figure B-7), Picea -spruce, Tilia -linden, fruits with soft and hard stones (Prunus, Cerasus, Pyrus), medicinal and aromatic plants (Galanthus-snow drop, Colchicum-autumn crocus or meadow crocus, Origanum-marjoram) and some other pasture species. This region is under the effects of disturbing factors such as illegal collection of the material in nature, the landslides due to opening new field areas, flood and erosion.

 

 Central Anatolia Region: There are many wild plant species growing in nature especially around the Salt Lake. The transitional zone between the northern and southern Anatolian regions are very rich in endemic species. The forest trees still remaining are the Ulmus-elm, Pinus nigra-black pine, Pinus sylvestris-Scots pine. The fruit trees such as Amygdalus-almond and Pyrus-pear and wild pear need to be conserved. The Medicago-alfalfa and Agropyron-wheatgrass species among the legumes and grasses respectively, show wide diversity. Astragalus-milkvetch species which are found commonly in destroyed pastures are abundant in this region. Also, Rosa-rose, Salvia-sage, Cistus-rock rose or labdanum and many other shrubs and herbaceous species are present in the region.

 

The destruction of pastures due to over grazing, erosion and partly the soil salinity are the predominating problems of the region. This region harboring genetic resources of plant species resistance to drought and salinity may have special importance as the global warming and the northward movement of temperate zone are on the global agenda of discussion.

C. CONSERVATION OF PLANT GENETIC DIVERSITY IN TURKEY

1. Legislative Status

1.1 Constitution

Although the items in the Turkish Constitution are not directly related to the conservation of plant genetic diversity, the article 63 of Constitution approved by Nation on 18.10.1982 states that the government should protect its historical, cultural and natural values and resources as well as support and promote conservation efforts made by people. This article also provides the possibility to conserve plant species in their natural habitats. There are items on environment protection in article 56, items on public benefits priorities in use of private properties in the article 35, items on optimum utilization of the land in the article 44, items on preventing the misuse of pasture and forages in the article 45, and items on conservation and development of forest resources in the article 169. These items in the Constitution are indirect supports for the conservation of plant genetic diversity.

 

1.2 Other Laws

In addition to the articles present in the Constitution, The Law for Protection of Cultural and Natural Values (Code No: 2863, 1983), Environmental Law (Code No: 2872, 1983), National Parks Laws (Code No: 2873, 1993), Bosphorus Law (Code No: 2960, 1983), Law for Specially Protect Environmental Regions (Code No: 88/13019, 1988), and Forestry Law (Codes: 6896, 1956; 2896, 1983; 3302, 1986) provide the opportunity for the protection of nature and biological diversity, and facilitate activities related to the conservation of plant genetic diversity

However, the Laws and related Regulations should be reviewed as looking for new management policies for effective and scientific conservation program since the in situ conservation of target species will be implemented in the areas in contents of above mentioned laws. New arrangements especially in Forestry Law should provide possibility for the restoration of forest ecosystems including the destroyed genetic diversity of many target plant species. The second item of The National Afforestation and Erosion Combating Law passed in July 1995 (Code No: 4122) is a good step toward the restoration of forest ecosystems. During the preparation of projects related to erosion and afforestation, the areas to be afforested should be considered whether they are rich or not especially in genetic diversity of the herbaceous species, since afforestation will cause to change in natural habitats.

 

 

1.3 Regulations

 

The Regulations legislated by Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs mainly aim at conservation of plant genetic diversity. The most important regulations are the followings:

 

1) The Regulation on the Collection, Storage and Use of Plant Genetic Resources (1992, The Turkish Official Gazette 21316:4-8 pp.),

2) The Regulation on the collection, production and export of wild flower bulbs (1995, The Turkish Official Gazette, No: 22371, pp. 5-11),

3) The Regulations on the collection of plant materials in Turkey.

4) The rules and principles for researches on plants by foreigners regulated by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1988, The Turkish Official Gazette. No:1979, pp. 3-4).

2. International Agreements and Cooperations

Turkey has aimed at participating actively and to take in control the trade and conservation of natural and biological resources by signing international agreements at different dates with many institutions listed below. The country gives solid efforts for the implementation of this international agreements. The agreements in which Turkey participates are as follow:

 

* Agreement on establishment of European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization, Paris, 1951

* Agreement on conservation of the World cultural and natural inheritances, Paris, 1972.

* Convention on conservation of European wildlife and habitats, Bern, 1979 (Turkey became a side in 1984).

* Agreement on long-distance trans-boundary air pollution , Geneva, 1984.

* Convention on protection of internationally important wetlands providing habitats for birds, Ramsar, 1975 (Turkey signed this in 1994).

* Agreement on trading of wildlife and plant species, Washington, 1973 (Turkey signed it in 1996).

* Biological diversity agreement, Rio 1992 (Turkey signed this through legislation article No : 4177).

* Conference on general principles for conservation of biological diversity in European forests, Ministerial Conference on Protection of European Forests, Helsinki, June 1993.

* Conference on conservation of forest gene resources. Ministerial Conference on Protection of European Forests, Strassbourg, December 1990.

* Convention on combating of desertification, Paris, 1994.

* The Agreement on International Plant Genetic Resources (It is signed between Turkey and International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI) on Jan. 3, 1994).

* Action plan for maintenance and conservation of plant genetic resources for agriculture and food (Turkey became a part of the plan in International Technique Conference for Plant Genetic Resources held on 06.17-23.1996).

 

Turkey’s Memeberships to International Organizations Related with Plantgenetic Resources: Turkey is member of the following international organizations. However, it is difficult to say whether Turkey gets adequate shares from international funding sources, although the country is in close cooperation with the international institutions below:

 

* World Bank (WB),

* United Nations, Education, Science and Cultural Organization, (UNESCO),

* International Union for the conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Switzerland (IUCN),

* World Wide Fund for Nature, United States (WWF),

* Council of Europe-Center Naturopa, France (represented by the Association of Turkish Nature

Conservation),

* United Nations-Food and Agriculture Organization (UN-FAO),

* International Commission on Plant Genetic Resources, FAO

* International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Italy (IPGRI),

* International Center of Arid Land Development for Agriculture, Syria (ICARDA),

* International Center for Maize and Wheat Breeding, Mexico (CIMMYT),

* The Union of International Forest Research Organization (IUFRO),

* United Nations Development Program (UNDP),

* European Cooperative Program for Crop Genetic Resources Networks (ECP/GR),

* European Forest Genetic Resources Program (EUFORGEN)

3. Related Institutes and Organizations

 

3.1 Governmental Organizations

 

The Turkish Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, and Ministry of Forestry, are the leading institutions for the implementation of the laws and regulations related to the conservation of natural resources. Ministry of Environment provides coordination of such activities. The General Directorate of Environment Protection is responsible in coordination of activities related to conservation of living natural resources.

 

The General Directorates of Forestry (GDF), General Directorate of National Parks, Game and Wild Life (GDNW), General Directorate of Afforestation and Erosion Control (GDAEC) and research institutes under Ministry of Forestry are responsible for the conservation programs conducted in forest areas. Research Directorate of Forest Trees and Seed Improvement is responsible in conducting ex situ and in situ conservation of genetic diversity of forest trees.

Aegean Agricultural Research Institute (AARI) is the leading responsible unit for conservation (generally ex situ) of plant genetic diversity of cultivated plants under the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs. This institute provides coordination and cooperate especially with Central Research Institute for Field Crops and other regional or local research institutes in the activities related to the conservation of plant genetic diversity.

 

The other institutions of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Special Environment Protection Department of Ministry of Environment, Universities, General Directorate of Culture and Natural Resources Protection under Ministry of Culture, and municipalities are also involved directly or indirectly in studies on the conservation of natural living resources. However, most of these activities are not directly related to the conservation of plant genetic diversity.

3.2 Non-governmental Organizations (NGO)

 

The number of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and their activities have increased lately. However, their contribution is not in a desired level due to their inadequate budgets. The studies of the non-governmental organizations are not directly dealing with the conservation of plant genetic diversity. However the Turkish Society for Protection of Nature (SPN), Turkish Erosion Prevention Foundation (TEPF), the Foundation of Conservation Afforestation and Natural Resources, Turkish Environmental Foundation, the Research Foundation for Rural Environmental and Forestry Problems, the Foundation for Conservation and Development of Hunting and Wild Life, the Aegean Foundation of Forestry and the other national or local organizations efficiently involve in the conservation and restoration of environment. These organizations have significant contribution to public awareness on the protection of biological diversity and natural environment. Karaca Arboretum, Atatürk- Arboretum and the Botanical Garden of Ege University are distinguished examples of their activities.

 

3. 3 Private Organizations

 

Private sector in Turkey involves neither directly nor indirectly in the conservation of plant genetic diversity. This sector might have interest on the usage and trade of plant genetic diversity. Even the private sector which is closely interested in the industrial production by using raw materials of plant origin has no contribution to the conservation activities. However, some arboretum or botanical gardens established or supported by private sector are good examples to show their potential contribution on ex situ conservation. The limited financial supports from certain private companies to some non-governmental organizations can be considered as their indirect contribution to the environment and nature issues.

  

4. Present Conservation Areas and Programs

 

4.1 Conservation Areas

 

4.1.1 Forest Areas

 

The protection of forests against any possible danger is under the security of State laws and regulations, since the ownership and the rights for utilization of forest resources belong to the State in Turkey. The studies related to conservation of plant genetic diversity in the forest areas are conducted by the governmental organizations through programs with various purposes and in different status such as the National Parks, Nature Conversation Areas, Nature Parks, Natural Monuments, Seed Stands, Gene Conservation Forests, all within the Ministry of Forestry.

 Different kinds of conservation statues listed above were established not only for conserving plant genetic diversity but also for other uses. However, many of these protected areas can be used for country-wide in situ conservation programs. The in situ conservation activities have usually been conducted in forest lands during the last several decades while it is a new program for agricultural plants, started first in 1993 in Turkey.

4.1. 2 Agricultural Areas

 

The governmental and private organizations are conducting plant breeding programs to provide quality seed, seedlings needed for the total 27.7 million hectares of agricultural area. The wild or cultivated material used as genetic donor in plant breeding programs are supplied within country or introduced. At the present, the progenitors or genetic donors of many cultivars in Turkey and world have been originated from Anatolia.

 

The conservation studies on wild herbaceous and woody relatives of crop plants in agriculture are conducted mostly by ex situ type of conservation in the institutes of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs. The studies on the in situ conservation of genetic diversity of these plants will be applied according to programs with the concept of “Gene Management Zones” which were described before. The ex situ programs carried by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs contribute directly or indirectly to the conservation of plant genetic diversity. The in situ conservation studies of the agricultural plants and their relatives were started first in 1993 in Turkey.

 

4.1. 3 Pasture Areas

 

The total pasture and meadow area is about 21.7 million hectares. The 21.1 and 0.65 million hectares of this total are pasture and meadow areas, respectively. Most of the meadows are under private ownership. The 75 % of pastures in steppe areas have insufficient precipitation, and are also under the risk of winter damage and erosion. The steppe flora is very interesting in genetic diversity. It is the long term-result of mostly anthrophogenic effects on the original vegetation for many thousands years ago.

 

Hay yield of these pastures have been decreased by the effects of unfavorable climatic conditions and over grazing in long term. Different research and extension works conducted by governmental institutions in Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs and some others have tried to improve the protection and management of pastures. However, these limited and non-systematic efforts failed to develop for efficient protection and management for pasture lands. It is hard to say that the methods for pasture management and restoration of destroyed vegetation were inclusively discussed and the efficient measures in whole were taken in comprehensive approach.

 

There is no responsible institutions for effective improvement of pastures, by eliminating the factors having negative impacts on pasture yield. In present utilization status of pastures, each family living close to pasture lands has a right to graze their animals regardless of carrying capacity of pasture. Due to unregulated use of pastures, degradation of pastures well as erosion are increased. As a result yield of pasture are decreasing.

 

In the beginning of in situ conservation program, it is only possible to have small area of pasture land to be protected physically (or fenced). However, in these small protected areas (Gene Conservation and Management Areas), it is difficult to separate the impacts of undesired changes in environment from those anthropogenic causes. Therefore, the long term solution for the conservation plant genetic resources in the pastures mainly depend on the solutions for better use of pasture and meet the shortages in animal feed. The proposed Pasture Law offers some solutions to the problems of pasture resources. Unfortunately the proposed law is still in discussion and has not been approved by the Turkish Parliament yet.

 

4.1. 4 Cemeteries

 

These areas with floristic richness are useful for conservation and evolution of plant species since they are in rural areas and physically protected quite well. These areas could be used for possible in situ conservation if a program providing the cooperation between institution and villagers is developed.

 

4.1. 5 Other Areas

 

The places such as archeological sites, open air museums, protected buffer zones of the dams and irrigation ponds, university campuses, and certain parts of state and private farms might be evaluated as the areas where the biological diversity partly is conserved or can be conserved. The target species in the surroundings of these places can be taken into consideration for conservation purposes with cooperation among involved institutions.

4.2 Current Conservation Programs

 

4.2.1 Natural SIT ( Archaeological, Cultural, and Natural Conservation ) Areas

Ministry of Culture with the authority of Act of Conservation of Culture and Natural Resources, its regulations (Nr.2863 and 3386),establishes and registers SIT Areas in order to protect natural and cultural values for future generations.

 

The studies in the determination of natural, archeological, urban and historic SIT areas are conducted by experts from General Directorate of Conservation of Culture and Natural Resources in Ministries of Culture, Environment, and Tourism. Then results of these studies are presented to the High Commission of Conservation for possible registration.

 

 

 

The Natural SIT Areas are important for the natural characteristics and beauties, rarely found, and needed for the conservation of the natural balance. Thus, the human activities in these areas should be controlled and restricted as much as possible. The conditions for the definition and utilization of the “the fırst, second and third Degree Nature SITs are regulated by the High Commission of Conservation of Culture and Nature Resources with the authority of related regulations Code 24 accepted on 06.28.1988 and Code 101 on 10.06.1989. Among those three types of SIT areas, the first degree SITs are the most suitable ones for in situ conservation purposes.

 

First Degree Natural SIT Areas: In these areas, activities are regulated as follow: 1) Any action disturbing the vegetation, topography, silhouette is not allowed, 2) For operational facilities such as the toilet, port, fisherman shelter, watchman house in the forest areas, road, auto park, restaurant, cafeteria special permits are required from High Commission, 3) The institutes which are responsible for preventing forest fires take necessary measures, 4) Removal of trees except for those downed by snow or wind, and unrecoverably sick ones is not allowed.

 

Until now,17 different Conservation Committees of Cultural and Natural Values have been established. The number of registered SITs has reached to 452. After Turkey signed Ramsar Convention in 1994, 23 of the 64 wetlands have been set aside as natural SIT areas which are internationally important wetlands, specially for birds. The “Monument Tree” definition was introduced by the Conservation High Commission of Cultural and Natural Values, with Code number 25 dated on 06.28.l988. At the present there are 600 monument trees were registered.

 

4.2. 2 National Parks (NP)

 

National Parks are defined as recreation and tourism areas which are rare in terms of scientific and scenic perspective in nature and are important for the conservation of the cultural and natural resource-values. These areas are in different regions of Turkey assigned as national parks by the different dates and purposes are now under the protective control and are kept open for public use.

 

 At the present, there have been totally 31 national parks established (612.112 hectares) since the studies were started in 1958 (Table 9). The size of national parks varies from 64 to 88000 hectares. Distribution of national parks in geographical regions is as follow: There are 5, 10, 6, 4, 3, 1, and 1 national park(s) in the Central Anatolia, Mediterranean Region, Black Sea Region, Marmara Region, Aegean Region, Eastern Anatolia Region, and Southeastern Region, respectively.

 

The purposes of establishing National Parks are different. Kuţcenneti NP is reserved solely for the purpose of conserving the bird species; and Dilek Peninsula NP is regulated for the conservation of habitats for maquis plant species. The protection and borders of NPs can be managed or changed by the time as well as the new ones can be added.

Even though the NPs are very appropriate for the in situ conservation of the biological diversity, they are not accepted as the most suitable places for in situ conservation of plant genetic diversity (considering the different purpose and management policies of each, and their deficiency in biological and genetic information). However, certain parts of some NPs with the new arrangements and altered management policies could be useful for in situ conservation of plant genetic diversity.

 

4.2.3 Nature Parks (NAP)

 

These areas are defined as the natural parks which are suitable for public recreational purposes , with scenic value, vegetation cover and wild life. The 11 NAPs were established to date and total conservation area is 46 872 hectares (Table 10) with the size ranging from 387.5 - 17 950 hectares. They were determined as NAP in different years, under the frame work of the National Parks Law (Article Code Nr. 2873). NAPs include high genetic diversity of plant and animal species.

In situ conservation of especially woody species in the NAPs can be practiced. However, it can not be expected that the conservation of gene resources can be effectively done, since these parks are open to public visits, and their area and number are limited. Meanwhile there is also inadequate information on floristic inventory of these places.

4.2.4 Nature Conservation Areas (NCA)

 

These areas are the natural places which are important for science and education, with representative samples of endangered or threatened ecosystems, species and natural environments. Under the frame work of NP Law (Article Code Nr. 2873) in different years, 32 NCAs with the sizes for each ranging 46.5 -17 200 ha., covering a total area of 82 023 ha. have been established to date (Table 11).

 

Most of the NCAs have been set aside to protect the endemic plant species. For example, Çığlıkkara NCA is very rich in endemic plant species, harboring over 400 plant species. Although there are many NCAs including forest tree species which are potential target species in this Plan, NCAs seem to be inadequate , when their conservation and management purposes and policies, numbers and sizes are considered. However, it is the only program that in situ conservation project can be effectively applied under the frame work of present legislations. In any case, the NCAs should be revised and evaluated in terms of target species in this Plan (for instance in effective population size, the status of genetic diversity and the factors affecting the conservation).

4.2.5 Nature Monuments (NM)

 

The areas with unique natural beauty and scientific values resulted from long termed natural processes are protected as Nature Monuments (NM). Most of the NMs are characterized by the very old trees. Until to present, 54 NMs covering a total area of 73.8 ha. have been established for protection (Table 12). Despite the presence of very old trees in NMs, there is no program in order to secure their genetic continuation. Only physical protection around such trees is applied.

There is a need for new regulations for the NMs to be used as the places for in situ conservation of plant genetic diversity. Especially, the sizes of NMs should be redefined not only with the aim to keep the survival of a single tree, but also with the consideration of viable minimum population size around the monument tree. Even the agricultural areas next to the NMs should be included as the indivisible part of NMs, if necessary. Genetic diversity of the trees within NMs is endangered, since they are very old and isolated. Therefore, they should be supported by ex situ conservation programs.

 

 

4.2.6 Biogenetic Reserve Areas (BRA)

Biogenetic reserve areas are the areas exhibiting rare or endangered habitats, unique ecosystems, protected by legislative status in national level. There are two main purposes of establishing biogenetic reserves; 1) to keep biological balance under control, to conserve and maintain genetic diversity and representation of different types of habitats, and ecosystems. 2) to make biogenetic reserve ecosystems be suitable for biologic studies.

Definition of Biogenetic Reserve Areas as a protection status became on agenda in 1976 by the decision of the Ministerial Committee of European Council. Seven Biogenetic Reserve Areas have been established in Turkey under the framework of Law for Ministry of Forestry and its Responsibilities (Article Nr.1595, in 1977) to date. They are listed below:

 

1. Sanli-Urfa-Birecik-Bald İbis (Geronticus eremita) BRA

2. Antalya-Manavgat-Köprülü Canyon Cypress Forest BRA

3. Dilek Peninsula National Park Maquis Flora BRA,

4. Köyceğiz-Karahayıt Sweetgum Forest BRA,

5. Niğde-Aladağ Hacer Forest Black Pine BRA,

6. Antalya-Güllük Mountain (Termessos) Maquis Flora BRA,

7. Isparta- Eğridir Yukarı Gökdere Kasnak Oak (Quercus vulcanica) Forest BRA.

4.2.7 Protection Forests (PF)

These areas are not specially designed for conservation of biodiversity or plant genetic resources. Forty-eight protection forests naturally or artificially established, covering about 1.5 % of total forest lands in Turkey have been set aside as PF. Their total area covers 360.130 hectares (Table 13). Most of the PF areas are established to protect watershed of dams. Some of these areas can be separated as “Wilderness” places for conservation of biodiversity, as well as of genetic diversity of target plant species. Considering the present status of PFs which are left out of production by the General Directorate of Forestry due to rugged topography, the PFs are not very useful for efficient long termed conservation of genetic diversity of target plant species. However, some parts of PFs can be used for conservation of forest trees and wild relatives of cultivated plants after necessary arrangements.

 

4.2. 8 Gene Conservation Forests (GCF)

The establishment of Gene Conservation Forests (GCF) was started within the frame work of the National Tree Improvement and Seed Production Program pre-pared in 1993. The selection of GCF were made from the forests which are naturally established, in good condition, uneven age structured, 10 - 100 ha. in size. These GCFs are managed like normal production forests. The natural regeneration of GCF is also preferred over artificial regeneration. Up to present, total of 2 816 ha. area for 6 forest tree species have been set aside as GCF. In coming years, it is planned to include more than 25 forest tree species and to set aside 18 100 ha. area in total.

 

When the objectives of GCF are considered, they could be very suitable for the conservation of genetic diversity of target forest tree species. However, the special management activities in these areas should be expected. It depends on the forest managements whether the area of GCF for each zone is sufficient or not. The solutions of the problems such as what kinds of forestry management activities will be practiced and how these practices will influence genetic diversity, and evolutionary processes in GCF should be considered in the early stage of GCF program. Furthermore, 10 ha.-core-area is too small to maintain the existing genetic diversity in GCFs as well as in surrounding forests.

 

4.2.9 Seed Stands (SS)

They are artificial or naturally (mainly natural) regenerated forest requiring minimum 25 ha. area and special silvicultural practices to produce high quality seed for regeneration programs. Turkish Forest Trees and Seeds Improvement Research Directorate (FTSIRD) has set up 322 seed stands for 26 forest trees species. Seed collected from these stands are being used for regeneration and reforestation programs. Total areas covered by SS make up 32914 ha land and total core are is 19932 ha (Table 14). SSs are set up basically for most of target forest tree species. Thus, SSs can be used as genetic resources if their size and management types are revised with respect to in situ conservation concept.

4.2.10 Gene Management Zones (GMZ)

 

Gene Management Zones (GMZ) are the natural and semi-natural areas protected with purpose of maintaining the genetic diversity in target species. GMZs are in situ gene conservation areas where the evolutionary processes take place in populations of endangered, or economically important plant species as well as species with high potential of genetic diversity and differentiation. The information for the selection criteria, management strategies and researches concerning GMZ have been provided in Appendix-1. GMZ concept provided in Appendix were developed with collaborative contribution of the Ministries and Universities participated to the special workshops held on In situ Conservation of Plant Genetic Diversity in Turkey.

 

“In situ Conservation of Plant Genetic Diversity Project”, which was undertaken as part of “Eastern Anatolia Watershed Rehabilitation Project” funded by the World Bank, in situ conservation of plant genetic resources of Turkey was initiated in 1993. The project aims to base in situ conservation of plant genetic resources on scientific principles and data. Studies concerning the in situ gene conservation of important plant species have been started initially in selected sites such as Kazdağ and Bolkar mountains and Ceylanpınar State Farm. Kazdağ is rich for endemic herbaceous and woody plants and wild relatives of some fruit trees. Ceylanpınar is an excellent site for the wild relatives of temperate cereals and legumes. The establishment of GMZs for genetic resources of target species will also help the conservation of biological diversity in general.

 

To carry out essential population biology and ecological studies in determining potential GMZ site, study materials have been collected for selected species in Kazdağ and Bolkar Mountains and Ceylanpınar State Farm. With the help of results of population biology and ecological studies, similar in situ conservation studies for the target species listed in the National Plan will be carried out in other places nationwide.

 

4.2.11 The Other Programs

 

There are other conservation programs established in different dates such as Specially Protected Environmental Regions, Wildlife Conservation Areas. These programs are not directly related to in situ gene conservation (Table 13). However they could also be utilized for the purpose of in situ conservation of genetic diversity of plant species, due to their legislative status. Detailed information on the programs have been provided below.

 

a) Specially Protected Environmental Regions (SPER):

These are the areas with great natural beauty, historical value and tourism potential. SPERs are set aside to protect the environmental and historical values by regulating housing and touristic developments. With the requirements of the Article Nr.9 of the Environmental Law (Code Nr.2872), twelve SPERs with historic and cultural values in different parts of the country have been set up so far, covering total area of 418800 hectares. The Agency for Special Environment Protection in Ministry of Environment is responsible to protect these areas as well as to prevent unregulated housing and other constructions.

 

The main purpose of establishing SPERs is to maintain those areas with natural, historical and touristic values, however, they can be incorporated into in situ conservation programs by revising management plans of SPERs to include the conservation of genetic diversity in the target plant species since SPERs are quite large areas. But, it is not easy to have effective conservation programs of plant genetic diversity in SPERs when their present legislative status considered. It is possible that conservation programs can be started within the SPERs by setting up Nature Conservation Areas or as other types of in situ conservation programs.

 

b) Wildlife Conservation Areas: These are the protected areas where the populations of endangered animal species are conserved in their natural habitats by the Ministry of Forestry. Since 1966, 109 Wildlife Conservation Areas covering total area of 1.8 million ha. in different parts of the country have been set aside.

 

c) The General Directorate of Agricultural Enterprises (GDAE): 37 of total 39 institutions under GDAEs are the farms whose main activities are seed production and animal breeding. The complete list of GDAE institutions and their distribution in the country have been given in Table 15 and Figure C-1. Ceylanpınar State Farm is located in the region called “Fertile Crescent” which is an important area for the evolution of genetic resources of cereal crops. This farm with the 169311 ha. land has special place among the similar ones in the world. Due to these characteristics of Ceylanpınar, it ihas been chosen as a pilot site for “In -situ Conservation of Plant Genetic Diversity Project” funded by GEF. Studies in Ceylanpinar are conducted by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs.

 

Most of the farms under GDAE are involved extensively in production of improved plant seeds and animal breds. Generally the farms have their own sheep and cattle herds and controlled grazing is practiced in grazing areas of the farms. Some farms also permits to honeybee keepers during the flowering period to lay their beehives. This practice is very efficient way of using the marginal lands as well as to maintain genetic diversity in insect pollinated plant species in farms.

 

Most of GDAE’s total farm land (381162 ha.) is used to produce improved cereal seeds in dry land conditions. The total area of the pastures, ranges and non-cultivated areas are 138448 ha. (Table 15). There are some interesting sites such as unproductive rocky hills, channels, muddy and wet places which may be useful for the conservation of the plant genetic as well as biological diversity.

These farms, considering their technical capacity, infrastructure, and the distribution in different regions of country, could be very suitable to establish new Gene Management Zones in the places which are rich in plant species diversity. These places are usually far from the cities and have good relations with the surrounding rural people. Thus, they have special importance for public education on regulations and practices in land use and nature conservation. Because the vast pasture lands of the country are mostly out of the protected areas, and while the basic solutions of nature conservation issues lies in this vast areas, the special position of this farms with respect to public relation in rural areas should be efficiently used in public education as well as in setting up new in situ gene conservation programs.

 

4.3 Supplementary Programs for in situ Conservation

It may not be adequate to have only in situ conservation programs for the maintenance of the genetic diversity in many target plant species at certain areas. In such case, in situ conservation programs have to be supported with ex situ conservation programs to provide gene resources for plant breeders as well as for genetic stocks whenever it is needed. At the present, there are two types of ex situ programs; 1) Seed orchards and clone banks, mainly for forest tree species 2) gene banks, mainly used for annual plants and partly for forest trees.

 

 

4.3.1 Seed Orchards (SO)

These are the artificially established forests which are intensively managed and have limited number of genotypes to produce genetically improved forest tree seeds for various forestry practices. The MOF-FTSIRD has established 146 clonal seed orchards (total area of 1018 ha.) for commercially important tree species including almost all of the target forest tree species (e.g.,Turkish red pine-Pinus brutia, black pine-Pinus nigra, scots pine-Pinus sylvestris, Aleppo pine -Pinus halepensis, stone pine-Pinus pinea, Taurus cedar-Cedrus libani, oriental spruce-Picea orientalis, Uludağ fir-Abies bornmulleriana, walnut-Juglans regia, oriental sweetgum-Liquidambar orientalis) (Table 16).

Additionally, 216 ha. areas as seed orchards were set up for 19 tree species which are not easily propagated by cuttings ( e.g., Pinus brutia, Pinus pinea, Pinus elderica, Cupressus sempervirens, Cerasus mahalep, Alianthus altissima, Robinia pseudoaccacia, Eucalyptus, Alnus, Liquidambar orientalis, Juglans regia, Fraxinus, Acer sp., Amygdalus sp, Eleagnus sp.). In addition to these, 9 clonal gene banks with total of 118 clones representing different species (total area of 17.2 ha.) were established for 4 forest tree species (Pinus brutia, P. nigra, P. pinea and Picea orientalis ).

 

The number of genotypes in seed orchards and clone banks, with present status, are not adequate to represent the total genetic variation which may be present in a species. To represent genetic diversity of natural forests in ex situ programs, the number of genotypes in SO and clone banks should be increased with the consideration of the effective population size in populations of the species.

 

 

4.3. 2 Gene Banks (GB)

 

In the Aegean Agriculture Research Institute (AARI), Central Research Institute for Field Crops (CRIFC) (Ankara), and Osman Tosun Gene Bank (Faculty of Agriculture, Ankara University), genetic materials as seeds for crop species and their wild relatives to be used as gene resources in breeding and research programs are stored in long term. In these gene banks, there are seeds representing thousands of samples mainly from Turkey.

There are also small gene banks in some other institutes working to develop the cultivars in field crops. These institutes are: Adana Agricultural Research Institute-Adana, Mediterranean Agricultural Research Institute-Antalya, Southeast Anatolia Agricultural Research Institute-Diyarbakır, Thrace Agricultural Research Institute-Edirne, East Anatolia Agricultural Research Institute -Erzurum, Transition Belt Agricultural Research Institute-Eskişehir, International Bahri Dağdaş Winter Cereal Research Institute-Konya, Cotton Research Institute-Nazilli, Agricultural Research Institute- Sakarya, Black Sea Agricultural Research Institute -Samsun.

The horticultural research institutes involving with cultivar development studies have also gene banks based on generative and vegetative materials. These institutes are : Atatürk Central Horticultural Research Institute-Yalova, Filbert (Hazelnut) Research Institute-Giresun, Viticulture Research Institute -Tekirdağ, Tea Plant Research Institute-Rize, Pistachio Research Institute - Gaziantep, Citrus and Greenhouse Development Research Institute-Antalya, Olive Research Institute-İzmir, Fruit Research Institute- Malatya, Fig Research Institute-Aydın.

 

Ministry of Forestry has cold storage rooms in FTSIRD-Ankara with the storing capacity of 585 thousand seedlings in 1 to 10 years. These rooms can be turned into long term ex situ conservation facilities with some arrangements.

 

 

 

 

4.3.3 Collection Gardens

 

Collection

gardens are the places where the plants are propagated with their vegetative parts and are stored. The examples for the plants propagated with vegetative parts are fruit species, perennial bushy forms of medicinal and aromatic plants, ornamentals plants, the species with bulbs, tubers, stolon, and rhizomes. These plants can be conserved as ex- situ in collection gardens which should be established at least four geographic regions of the country. In obtaining materials for collection gardens, each sample should be conserved in at least two gardens located in different climates and at least 3 clones for each sample should be included in each location.

 

5. Research and Education

 

5.1 Taxonomic, Ecological and Biological Studies

The floristic and phytosociological studies have been accelerated by completion of Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands (Davis, 1965-88). Similar studies have been conducted and contributed more information for flora of the country. The studies which have exposed many number of new species have indicated that plant species, genera and families should be revised because conservation of species without knowing the taxonomic classification is inefficient and not clear.

In recent years, financial support provided by TUBITAK and SPO to some research projects have produced valuable information on the endemic species and helped the preparation of the data where can be reached by the communication networks. The number of studies dealing with the species diversity, species distribution and their density are very few.

 

Conducting the study dealing with biology of single species takes not only a lot of time but also requires expert plant biologists. There are studies completed on single species basis, but they are insufficient. The morphology, reproductive, biology, genetic structure, socio-ecology and physiology of many species in the ecosystems in Turkey are not known well.

 

There are a few studies dealing within species genetic variation. Most of the studies are limited to single location or a few observations. To determine the real pattern of genetic variation within the species, the number of studies on within species related, should be increased.

 

 

 

5.2 Researches on in situ Conservation

 

There are many conservation programs categorized in different classes. The size of conservation areas compared to over all country is still very small (Table 14). However, there are few studies that can help the in situ conservation of genetic diversity.

Detailed floristic studies related to conservation areas are still insufficient. The publication of Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands with 10 volumes (Davis, 1965-88) is not enough for the in situ conservation of genetic diversity in plants. The biology, population genetics and autoecology of the target species should be investigated to have an efficient in situ gene conservation program for target species.

 The project titled “In Situ Conservation of Plant Genetic Diversity” which is the sub-project “Global Environmental Facility-Eastern Anatolia Watershed Rehabilitation Project” has been conducted since 1993. With funding from this project, the institutes of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, and Ministry of Forestry have been equipped with lab facilities and technical personnel trained on in situ conservation of plant genetic resources. These institutes now have research background to conduct the in situ conservation studies in the future.

 

5.3 Public Education

 

Public education on environmental problems and natural values in Turkey has been started in recent decades. Due to thisdelay, “environmental consciousness” among both educated or non-educated sections of the society of the country is inadequate. It is not easy to teach the potential future values of plant genetic resources of the country to even educated people since we do not have a good nature education tradition. Therefore, vegetation cover has been reduced and fertility of soils have become weaken in the country. Furthermore, biological diversity is adversely impacted, since especially regulations for pasture use and protection have not been regulated for sustainable use.

 

In recent years, broadcasting programs related to environmental problems in media improved considerably the “environmental consciousness” of the public in Turkey. The environment and nature related works of the governmental, private and the voluntary organizations are also promising to imp-rove the “environmental consciousness” of public further.

 

5.4 Personnel Education

 

The personnel who will be working in situ conservation projects should be well trained and educated. Thus, with the frame work of in situ conservation of plant genetic resources project discussed above, the technicians and researchers from the MARA, MOF, and MOE have been trained and educated in country and in overseas with short courses and training programs.

 

The trained group of personal from three ministries with the contributions from universities have formed the technical personal core responsible for producing management and research policies for in situ gene conservation programs in Turkey. More extensive educational programs are needed to train and educate more young researchers in the field for enlarging the core technical personnel already exist.

6. Data Base and Exchange

The scientific data production and evaluation are needed to establish “Gene Management Zones” which will lead the in situ conservation programs for plant genetic diversity. For this purpose, a database created on in situ conservation of plant genetic resources should be provided in a very short time to responsible governmental and private or voluntary institutes which will need this kind of information.

At the moment, FTSIRD is the institution which establishes and monitors all gene conservation areas in tree species with cooperation of other MOF organizations. At the same time, the General Directorate of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation contributes to the conservation of genetic diversity in conserved areas. Conservation programs concerning wild relatives and land races of crop species are carried out by the MARA-AARI, İzmir, and CRIFC, Ankara.

The CRIFC-Ankara and the other institutes in MARA contribute also to the (especially ex situ) conservation activities. Ministry of Environment has mostly coordinated the conservation activities related with plant genetic resources, and provided information on conservation issues to the public. Conservation studies can be conducted more effectively by the strong cooperation among the involving institutions.

 

6.1 Data Management

The continuation and success of the National Plan for “In Situ Conservation of Plant Genetic Diversity in Turkey” depend on the generation of adequate data and the distribution of available information on genetic resources to related institutions.

There are many publications concerning plant genetic resources and the distribution of wild relatives of crop plants produced by different research institutions. To eliminate the duplication of researches in the future, first, a central data base should be formed with existing data and managed for conservation of plant genetic resources. These collected information plus the information to be obtained from the new studies should be in the data base for distributions so that available data can be efficiently used.

 

6.2 Geographic Information System (GIS)

The most efficient way to use the information accumulated in a center will be in favor of establishment and precise utilization of GIS. GIS is the computer system with which data entrance and output, data processing, data management can be efficiently handled when the geographical location of a given place is provided. Special computers and softwares designed for this purpose are needed in the establishment of the system. In this system, remote sensing techniques as well as field observations will be used in order to get the inventory of ecosystem and plant community related data.

 

Selected biological systems for the applications of GIS is very complex since these systems cover very large geographic area, and are under many factors. With the GIS, the data base can be established for ecosystems, species, locations the distribution of habitats. GIS based data base will also help to determine strategies or systems for sustainable management of forest or pasture lands.

 

With the applications of GIS, vegetation mapping systems can be developed and can be very useful for vegetation management. GIS can be used in determining whether the areas defined in in situ studies are reduced or enlarged. Specific species within their habitats can be followed and controlled, and also the increase or reduction in species density can be monitored by this system. Therefore, the GIS will help to evaluate continuously an area and to select the strategies for the sustainable utilization of land.

7. Public Awareness

The approach for conservation of genetic resources in our country is a very new subject. Public support is needed for effective and continuos applications for conservation. Public in Turkey is not aware of the importance of the plant genetic resources and their conservation. To establish a good public awareness program on conservation of biological diversity and especially in situ gene conservation of plant genetic resources, we need comprehensive plans dealing with the issues such as determination of objectives and strategies, target public, and means and ways to apply the programs clearly and effectively.

In addition to the public awareness establishment in general, an effective in situ conservation in Turkey requires the active participation of local communities since traditional patterns of land use, and nomadic lifestyle will be disturbed some degree with the establishment of new GMZs as well as other in situ conservation programs. The program which will effectively manage the local community participation to in situ conservation programs should start or be prepared long before the GMZs in given area are established. Such program may be started first in pilot GMZs, especially GMZs close to the places where better public awareness education could be achieved. The main points in public awareness programs should emphasize the richness of Turkey in biological diversity and endemics as well as being of gene centers for many crop species. Then, the public awareness and local community participation program for effective in situ conservation should be developed in nation-wide.

The public awareness programs has been conducted via media exposing educational programs supported by the governmental and voluntary organizations. In recent years, environment and biological diversity matters related programs have been broadcasted frequently by state and private TV companies and this has contributed greatly to public education on biodiversity. However, in public awareness, programs dealing with in situ gene conservation programs should focus on local people around Gene Management Zones and provide the participation of local people to these programs.

In the public awareness programs, the voluntary organizations should also be involved. The number of voluntary organizations are more than 400 in country. Some of the voluntary organizations which have already contributed indirectly on etablishment of public awareness of conservation of plant genetic resources are FTNC, SPN, FWC, TEF, REFPRA and TEPF. It is appropriate that the Ministry of Environment could support the organizations mentioned above and the other related associations or foundations so that they can develop the project concerning public awareness on conservation of environment and biological diversity.

 

D. NATIONAL OBJECTIVES, PRIORITIES AND STRATEGIES

1. National Objectives

1.1 General Objectives of Plan

 

The general objective of the National Plan for In Situ Conservation of Plant Genetic Diversity is to determine the priorities and strategies for effective management and conservation, sustainable utilization and monitoring of genetic diversity of target species and to implement these priorities and strategies in the forms of a national in situ gene conservation program. With this approach, it is not only the plant genetic diversity for target species will be conserved, but also conservation of biological diversity and natural environment will be carried out. Additionally, necessary genetic materials to be used in plant breeding programs will be also provided.

1. 2 Specific Objectives of the Plan

The specific objectives of the plan are as follows:

 

1) To determine the present status and problems existing in in situ conservation of plant genetic resources in Turkey. Plant genetic resources should be understood as the natural populations, cultivars or land races of the wild relatives of crop species and globally important forest tree species native to a country or in a region that genes needed by breeders and scientists could be derived.

2) To determine internationally and nationally significant cultivated plants and their wild relatives, and forest tree species (target species) as well as to take actions to eliminate those factors threatening genetic diversity in these species;

3) To determine and implement the priorities and strategies for effective in situ conservation of the genetic diversity of target plant species and also improve the status of current conservation programs;

4) To outline the research priorities for effective management of genetic diversity in target plant species;

5) To determine effective ways and means for participation and support of local people living close to GMZs in conservation activities .

6) To determine the research and development programs which will increase the role of national institutions in the establishment and management of GMZ.

7) To develop an effective public awareness program directed towards the education of people living in rural areas on awareness of conservation of natural resources by local people participation to GMZ activities.

2. Priorities and Strategies

 

2.1 In situ Conservation

 

There are considerable numbers of programs dealing directly or indirectly with in situ conservation of plant genetic resources (see Section C of the Plan). NPs and NCAs are the examples of indirect in situ gene conservation programs. The Gene Conservation Forests, Gene Management Zones (GMZ) are the examples of direct in situ gene conservation programs.

Biodiversity conservation, an integration of ecology and genetics, represents diversity at all levels of biological organizations such as the ecosystem, the species, the organisms, the gene. Also, conservation of biodiversity secures the link between the evolutionary past and future survival, adaptation, continuing evolution or decline of species or communities (Frankel et al. 1995). Therefore, in situ conservation of plant genetic resources can not be thought as apart from biodiversity. There are many approaches and ways of conservation of plant genetic resources within biodiversity context. However, in many cases, plant genetic resources of target plant species may not be efficiently conserved due to the ecology, genetics and reproductive biology of the species, conservation status and administrative structure of protected areas. Therefore, a new in situ conservation approach for wild relatives of crop species and forest tree species is needed. GMZs seem to be more appropriate to conserve genetic resources of wild relatives of crop species as well as forest trees in situ. The reason is that the primary function of GMZs is the protection of genetic resources either a single target species or entire community, but it could be also managed for other economic benefits such as grazing and timber harvesting as long as the other uses do not threaten the primary function of GMZ. In site selection or population selection, highest priority is to capture the core variability within the species in the areas that represent the variability of the region.

There are many endemic species or economically important plant species in Turkey. To set up GMZs for each of these species or combination of these species will be costly program which can not be funded with the present status of financial sources. Therefore, among the wild relatives of cultivated plants and forest trees, those species with vital genetic resources present in Turkey, globally and nationally important relatives of crop and forest tree species or endangered rare plant species have been determined as target (Table 8, Figure B). In determination of target species, the existing information in the literature, suggestions from the experts in three Ministries (MARA, MOF and MOE) and experts who participated the workshops held on the Plan and the criteria developed in Appendix-1 were utilized. In situ gene conservation works should be primarily focused on these target species. But with accumulation of data and experiences in -situ studies as well as globally and nationally changing policies and priorities, the new target species could be added into the in situ gene conservation programs.

 

Almost all of the programs serving directly or indirectly to the conservation of plant genetic diversity are in forest tree species. There is no conservation program dealing with the in situ conservation of wild relatives of crops. It is not appropriate to take any GMZ as sole conservation area for agricultural plants or forest trees since there may be target species of both groups within a GMZ.

 

Considering the taxonomic and genetic richness in the cultivated plants and their wild relatives, it is expected that number of GMZ and target species will be much higher in the crop species than those in forest trees. However, the size of GMZs can be much smaller and distributed throughout the country for crop species than forest tree species. During the site selection processes as a GMZ for target species, the priorities should be given to the areas which meet the criteria listed in Appendix-1. For examples, sites representing core variability in target species as well as sites with rich biodiversity, in government owned lands, suitable for long term conservation and funding etc. may be considered as as important factors in GMZ site selection.

 

As results, activities in all conservation programs will contribute to the conservation of biological diversity, the development of public awareness on nature and environment and conservation of natural resources in the country.

The important socio-economic factor that will affect the conservation of plant genetic diversity is the presence of pasture lands close to GMZs. If the technical and legislative regulations related to the use of pastures are not developed GMZs will not have the function of conservation of genetic diversity and natural values. Therefore, a pasture act which will regulate the use and conservation of pastures is a crucial factor for effective gene resource conservation in pastures.

2.1.1 Wild Relatives of Cultivated Plants and Forest Trees

2.1.1.1 In Short Term

There are various areas conserved with different purposes and institutions such as NP, PF, NCA, NM, NAP, SPER, SIT area etc. It is necessary to utilize these areas for the conservation of genetic diversity in target species.

 

There are important factors which should be taken into considerations during in -situ conservation activities. Some of these factors have been provided below that can be used as guidelines.

 

1) The size of GMZ should be sufficiently large so that the minimum viable population size (MVP) can be achieved to allow the evolutionary changes to continue, effective conservation and sustainable use of genetic diversity in target species populations.

2) The management principles for GMZs should have legal basis.

3) Those institutions which are responsible for the conser vation and management of genetic resources of target species should be identified clearly.

4) The magnitude and source of budget needed for operating GMZs should be identified.

5) Instead of defining GMZ for each species, the areas including more than one target species should have the priority to be selected as GMZ so that the expenses can be reduced.

6) The size and number of GMZs will vary depending on the biology of the target species.

7) The success of the studies depends on the institutional improvement and cooperation between them since the GMZ and the studies relatedwith them require involvement of different organizations and disciplines.

With keeping above points in mind, the programs and strategies related directly or indirectly to the in situ conservation of genetic diversity should be reviewed and the following studies should have the priority in short term.

For those species indicated as target species,new gene conservation areas should be established as soon as possible by utilizing the species distribution maps or as well as available information for wild relatives of crop species and important forest tree species (Figures B).

Despite of difficulties such as the insufficient information on the population genetics, ecology and biology of target species and the cost of GMZ managements, the recognition and initiation of GMZ concept is an important task in conservation. On the other hand, even though there is no need for new laws or institutions to determine the GMZ, some new legal regulations are needed. In the short term, with the aid from the existing conservation programs, especially the laws of Forestry and National Parks, the areas with important plant genetic resources should be identified and set aside as NCAs or GCFs as soon as possible.

 

The inventory of plant species and their densities in all protected lands should be completed by considering the distributions and sizes target species populations in the whole country. Both the conservation of genetic and biological diversity should be also considered in the management of these protected lands. Government and voluntary organizations should have the support and active participation of local people close to the conservation areas.

 

The factors causing negative environmental changes in conserved areas should be determined, and necessary measures and projects should be developed to eliminate them.

 

If there is not enough data on how the management practices in protected lands as well as non-protected lands (e.g., managed forests) effect the magnitude and structure of genetic variation in populations of interested species, it is advised that only natural regeneration of forests should be practiced. Considering the present status of tree improvement program in Turkey, artificial regeneration of forest lands in where large areas with clear cut or in afforestation programs should be avoided as long as there is no genetic information available about the used planting stocks.

 

All conservation programs (mainly seed stands and gene conservation forests) specifically aiming at in situ gene conservation of plant genetic resources were initiated for forest tree species. Seed stands have already been established for most of the target forest tree species listed in Table 8. Gene conservation forests are being established already for some target tree species and are planned to continue the establishments of them for economically important tree species. The Ministry of Forestry has adopted the policy for GCFs that no management practices will be conducted on them.

 

In the establishments of both seed stands and gene conservation forests, the important information for in situ gene conservation programs on the magnitude and structure of genetic variations in tree populations is not sufficient or do not exist. Therefore, the number, size, and management plans of seed stands and gene conservation forests set aside to date should be revised. If it is necessary number and size should be increased and new management plans should be applied.

 

Since we do not know how management practices will effect the genetic composition of target species in GMZ, thus, any forestry practices, that is artificial, should be avoided until the management plans for GMZs are prepared (Appendix 1).

 

In situ gene conservation programs in Turkey are not specifically set up for conservation of genetic resources of wild crop species. In situ gene conservation studies for the wild relatives of crop species were started in 1993 with a pilot project, Global Environmental Facility-Eastern Anatolia Watershed Rehabilitation Project. The genetic resources for these species are conserved in the conservation areas set for forest trees as long as forest habitats allow to do so. In other words, if the populations of wild crop plants find suitable habitat in the protected lands such as NP, NCA, NAP, SS and GCF, their genetic resources will be conserved in situ quite well. On the other hand, most of the wild crop plants are found in natural pasture lands in where there are no protected lands existing. Therefore, new GMZs for wild relatives of agricultural plant should also aim at conserving plant genetic resources in pastures, especially in high elevation areas.

 

In herbaceous plants, the genetic differentiation of populations can be even observed within several square meters. On the other hand, the differentiation of populations of trees occur in greater distances than it does in annual herbaceous plants. Thus, the size and management systems will be different for those GMZ set for wild relatives of crop species than in forest tree species or woody fruit tree species. The size and management of GMZs will be determined by the reproductive biology of species, being annual vs. perennial plants etc. For example, for the species which adopted selfing as the means of pollination and reproduction, there may be many conservation areas with small sizes being appropriate while the large conservation areas in small numbers will be more suitable for those plant species which are wind or insect pollinated ones

 

In Turkey, large areas have been afforested to prevent the soil erosion. Before the afforestation plans are prepared by the MOF, the areas with important genetic resources of wild relatives of crop species should be identified by the cooperative works of MOF, MARA, MOE and universities as soon as possible. If it is necessary, they should be designated as conservation areas since during site preparation period, genetic resources as well as suitable habitats for wild crop species may be lost.

 

2.1.1.2 In Long Term

 

In long term, sustained political support and steady funding must be provided for effective in situ conservation of plant genetic resources of target plant species, for professional and technical staff training and for stabilization of institutions which are needed in conservation programs. The funding for in situ conservation of genetic resources of target plant species may be insufficient for genetic objectives in the beginning. In the early stage of the in situ conservation programs, whenever it is possible , the existing other conservation programs in Turkey listed in the section C of this plan, should be used to reduce the cost of the establishing new GMZs. But in long term, independent and alternative funding system should be sought. In some cases, international cooperative activities for in situ conservation of plant genetic resources in Turkey may be a viable alternative. While extra resources may be needed for the establishment of new in situ gene conservation programs, however, investment of the limited funds to conservation of plant genetic resources will generate a worthwhile return for not only Turkey, but also other countries in terms of conservation of natural resources and useful products. An estimate for benefit to cost ratio for plant genetic resources conservation and use work suggest that this ratio 19:1 favoring the benefit from conservation of plant genetic resources (Personal Communication, T. Hodgkin, 1996).

 

It is expected that the most effective-in situ conservation of plant genetic resources will be made in GMZs since conservation programs will be based on the scientific data and past experiences. Therefore, the new GMZs for economically important or endangered plant species should be determined by giving the priorities to the target species listed in Table 8.

 

The magnitude and structure of genetic variation in the populations of target plant species in entire range should be determined by population genetic studies. For population sampling , to get the well representation of populations, the criteria and information given in Appendix-1 should be consulted. With the study of population genetics of the target species, the minimum viable population size for species (effective population size), the number of GMZs and their sizes for a given species and special management systems if it is necessary should be determined. In addition to population genetics of target species, the reproductive biology, autoecology and density of target plant species in a GMZs as well as outside GMZs should be studied to generate the data needed for effective in situ gene conservation programs.

The studies conducted suggest that the conservation area for a forest tree species should be at least 60 ha, or 200 ha if there is possibility. The situation is quietly different in the magnitude and number of the areas to be protected for the conservation of land races and their wild relatives of the herbaceous plants. Especially, many small areas can be set aside as GMZs for self pollinated species.

 

For each GMZ, there should be a management plan and the plan for the GMZ should have clear statements about what the target species are and what is responsible institution. The management plans should also include a monitoring program to follow if there will be any evolutionary and biological changes in target species, population as well as other plant species in a given GMZ (Appendix 1). The target species should be conserved in at least two GMZs in the same ecogeographic area to ensure that they are under safe against to any possible catastrophes .

 

The population genetic studies and preparation of the administrative plans for GMZs as well as the application of the plan will create extra work load to MOF-FTSIRI and MARA-AARI in terms of laboratory infrastructure, and technical capacity and personnel. On the other hand, there is a unit working directly on the conservation of genetic sources in the CRIFC, Ankara. This unit will be responsible to do the safety duplication of genetic material conserved in AARI. Therefore, both institutes FTSIRI and AARI should be developed in a way that they could serve as gene conservation and management centers. At the same time, the resources should be provided to the CRIFC and other institutions that will take the responsibility. A data bank related to the conservation of plant genetic resources should be established in FTSIRI and AARI. The data bases in the institutions should be linked to the national net-working through TUBİTAK.

 

Most of the established GMZs will be close to villages or cities where adverse environmental factors will be present. For well reception of in situ gene conservation programs by the local people, the in situ conservation programs should also provide developmental projects creating new jobs based on utilization of plant genetic resources. Effective programs in GMZs should be initiated by the voluntary organizations to get the public awareness.

 

2.1.2 Land Races and Transition Forms

 

In recent years, the crop yields have been increased significantly by using high yielding cultivars and the improvement of agronomic techniques. This situation forced farmers to use new cultivars instead of using landraces. However, there are still many farmers who prefer the land races to the modern cultivars. The areas where the land races of many crop species still planted are generally located in marginal agricultural lands such as high elevation uplands, drylands, environmentally stressed areas (occurrence of frequent early or late frost damages). Also, the better taste, resistance to environmental stresses, peculiar fragrance, or long storage characteristics of some land races make them be still planted by local farmers for their own consumption. This trend is most likely to continue, but these farmers should be recognized by the MARA authorities and local races should be listed and monitored for the continuity of their genetic resources.

 

These land races which are grown in limited areas due to their specific characteristics, and adapted well to specific environments can be used in transferring their valuable genes into modern cultivars more easily than wild relatives, since they are gene resources that are easy to use compared to the wild relatives. Therefore, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs should take measures to conserve the land races in the conservation program of genetic resources.

 

On the other hand, some transitional forms (semi-wild) of plants are at an evolutionary stage that can be directly cultivated. This situation is valid especially in temperate crops and some fruit species. The distribution of transitional forms is certainly more limited than the wild relatives and land races. However, even these forms are rarely found in GMZs, where they should be precisely conserved, maintained and evaluated because they can be evaluated quickly in breeding programs due to their advance evolutionary stages.

The ongoing studies on land races and transitional forms of cultivated plants (cereals, forage plants, edible legumes, vegetables, ornamental plants, medicinal and aromatic plants, fruit trees) to prevent the gene erosion under the supervision of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs should be directed in the followings directions:

 

The changing agricultural practices, economical difficulties and new market demands cause to reduction in genetic diversity of land races. But the magnitude of this genetic erosion is not known so the list of primitive land races should be completed as soon as possible and conservation programs should be prepared. For example, the measures can be taken to conserve the land races in the field conditions by some socio-economic arrangements. The use of herbicides or pesticides on borders separating farm lands from each other should be discouraged. Furthermore, the regulations on burning stubble in farm lands that was recently accepted by MOF and MARA should be strictly controlled and sanctioned.

 

2.2 Supplementary Programs to in situ Conservation (ex situ conservation)

 

Neither in situ nor ex situ programs alone are adequate to conserve effectively and continuously plant genetic diversity. For various reasons (such as the differences in reproductive biology, ecology and physiology of target plant species, high cost of establishment and maintenance of in situ conservation area, and vulnerability of in situ conservation programs to environmental stresses), in situ conservation programs are needed to be supported by ex situ conservation programs. Ex situ conservation programs in agriculture or forestry are not new in Turkey, but the present status of ex situ conservation is far from being satisfactory.

 

On the other hand, the use of genetic material conserved as ex situ should be encouraged in plant breeding. Even though the main objective of the ex situ conservation for the species is to provide the information to the user (breeder) by characterizing and evaluating the genetic diversity, this information and material should be also transferred to the users. Thus, the extensive information exchange on materials between ex situ units and users is needed.

2.2.1 Wild Relatives of Cultivated species and Forest Trees

 

The ex situ conservation programs are proceeded effectively for the wild relatives of cultivated plants. Especially the conservation programs dealing with seeds are in good condition. Conservation of crop species (especially as seeds) should continue in seed banks. The materials conserved as seed and vegetative materials do not exactly represent their populations in nature in terms of genetic diversity. The material amount to be sampled for conservation should be revised by conducting studies on population genetics, reproduction biology and ecology and genetics, as well as considering the concepts of MVP and EPS.

 

Sampling should be done randomly on at least 50-100 plants. Sufficient amount of pod, spike, capsule, flower bunch, tuber, rhizome, etc. in each plant should be collected depending on the structure of plant sampled. For the wild woody relatives of crops species, the sampling techniques representing the population should be applied. In ex situ conservation programs, samples should take the information given in Appendix-1 into consideration.

 

The number of genotypes in seed orchards and number of clones in clone banks should be reviewed by considering the MVP and EPS of the species. The new seed orchards and clone banks for the other forest tree species are also established. While sampling new clones from forests, the information provided in Appendix 1 should be consulted.

The information on existing provenance and progeny tests should be compiled and if it is necessary, they should be used as ex situ conservation areas. While establishing these types of experimental tests in future, it should be considered that these areas can be also used as ex situ gene resources. The storage facilities, where various materials related to forest gene resources can be stored in long term, should be further developed.

2.2.2 Cultivated Plant Cultivars

 

The ex situ conservation principles mentioned above for the wild species are valid for cultivated plants. The cultivar development and their extension studies are proceeded under the frame work of National Projects established for each crop group in the research institutes of the MARA. The pedigree records and multi-location testing of cultivars are conuducted by Cultivar Testing and Registration Institute-Ankara while their sample gentic stocks are conserved for long term purposes by AARI-Izmir.

 

The representation of the genetic diversity in the populations of species conserved ex situ should be updated by reviewing the Collection Gardens established for the land races of cultivated woody plants in the agricultural research institutes. The management of these plantations are conducted by the institutes which hold the genetic resources. The inventory of these plantations has been carried out twice in previous years under the frame work of Plant Genetic Resources- National Project. These inventories should be updated.

 

E. PRIORITY ACTION PLAN

1. Legal and Institutional Strengthening

 

1. 1. Legislative and Administrative Revisions

GMZ Frame-work Regulations: The new regulations concerning the establishment and management of GMZs should be prepared. It should facilitate the use of existing conservation programs as well the coordinated works of different institutions in various ministries. GMZs frame-work regulations (here on it will be referred as GMZ regulations) should define clearly the principles and methods for these cooperative works as well as involving institutions working under different authorities or ministries so that conservation works can be carried out effectively and continuously. Therefore, the GMZ regulations should be prepared under the supervision of the MOE, MOF and MARA with participation of other related institutions to outline the responsibilities and authorities of involving institutions.

 

Since in situ gene conservation programs require continuity of the activities, new regulations should be able to secure the physical protection as well as gene resource conservation of GMZs. Furthermore, new regulations have to define clearly responsibilities and authorities involving GMZs. During the preparation of new regulations, the existing conservation programs should be considered. Moreover, additional protocols that will improve the effectiveness of the regulations will be also needed to clarify the responsibilities and authorities of the institutions working under different Ministries which may take part in GMZ programs.

 

The new GMZ regulations should point out that the physical administration and management of GMZs for forest trees, and wild relatives of crop species (including land races) should be coordinated by the FTSIRI and AARI, respectively. However, the participation of other institutions in the MARA and the MOF should be encouraged for in situ gene conservation activities.

 

The physical administration and management of GMZs could be given to various government institutions depending on the ownership of the land in where GMZs established. If a newly established GMZ is located in the land which has already an administrative regulations and has its own legislative status, they should be administrated by the existing regulations of the responsible institution(s). But the preparation of GMZ management plans should be under the responsibility of the Regional Board for In Situ Gene Conservation (RBGC).

 

The RBGC should consist of representatives mainly from regional institutions directly responsible for GMZ management as well as representatives from voluntary, other government and local organizations. The RBGC should be also responsible for the preparation of GMZ plan, application of plan and monitoring of genetic diversity GMZs with cooperation of AARI and FTSIRI. Higher Board for In Situ Gene Conservation (HBGC), which will be responsible for reviewing existing gene conservation programs in nationwide and determining necessary policies in gene conservation issues, should be based in Ankara. Again, the responsibilities and function of HBGC should be outlined clearly in the GMZ regulations.

 

Pasture Regulations: Successful in situ conservation of genetic resources depends on the prevention of the adverse affects created by rural population, in turn, grazing on plant gene resources in and around GMZs located in pastures. A complete pasture legislation with technical and scientific basis has not been prepared yet. The lack of pasture law has been tried to to be filled with help of an old legislation dated back in the Ottoman Empire period, in 1858.

 

The “Civil Code ” passed in 1926 accounted the pasturesconsidered as public lands, and stated the requirement of a special legislation for the pastures. Within last 70 years, many pasture law proposals have been prepared and submitted to the Turkish Parliament just like the one recently prepared by the MARA in 1995, but all efforts have failed to pass such a legislation. The approval of the recently prepared pasture -law proposal by the MARA should have great value in effective in situ conservation of genetic diversity of plants as well as the improvement of natural environment in pasture based animal production.

1.2 Coordination of Activities

 

For the successful implementation of 'National Plan for in situ Conservation of Plant Genetic Diversity in Turkey', there is great necessity of establishment of smooth-running coordination and cooperation among three ministries i.e., MOF, MARA and MOE. Also, the coordinated research activities concerning the conservation of genetic diversity and management of genetic resources is essential for effective in situ conservation. For this purpose, the coordination among involving institutions for deterring the strategy and policies should be carried out by the HBGC.

Also, for effective public awareness and education on in situ gene conservation and implementation of the National Plan, great coordination between MOE and NGOs is essential. On the other hand, involvement of local people close to GMZs should be provided during the implementation of the National Plan. Also, if the economic losses of local people due to GMZ establishment occur , this should be compensated.

 

1.3 Management Responsibilities

 

Considering the land ownership circumstances in Turkey, the distribution of management responsibility among involving institutions does not seem to be an important problem since most of lands where the important plant genetic resources occur are either forest or pastures and owned by the government. Thus, there will be seldom a need for land acquisition from private organizations.

 

There is no doubt that the establishment and management of the GMZs need to be based on the legal grounds. At the moment, there is no need for new legislation to establish and manage the GMZs because the existing laws and regulations will provide the legal power needed. The GMZs could be established in existing conservation areas if these areas include the target species. If there is a need for establishing new GMZs, they could be set aside like Nature Conservation Areas if there is no management practices are required in GMZs. If management practices are needed in established GMZs, they could be set aside like GCF and registered in the forestry management plans.

 

There is no doubt that there will be common potential problems and difficulties in the physical conservation and management of GMZs established outside the forest land since these lands, in contrast to forest lands, are very close villages or cities , roads or pastures where anthropogenic factors are prevailing . For establishment of new GMZs outside forest lands, the sites which are close to MARA -agricultural farms, research institutes, experiment; stations, and nurseries, Ministry of Culture- archaeological ruins, restricted zones of dams should be given the priorities. The sites should be fenced and a GMZ guards should be employed for taking care of the GMZ since the “continuity ” is the basic principle in the conservation of genetic diversity in situ.

 

The herbaceous plants and the plants with small vegetative structures in GMZs outside forest lands will be also open to adverse effects of local people and unregulated animals grazing. The scientific management in the conservation studies of the genetic diversity of these types of GMZ should be conducted by the MARA-AARI and other local institutions. Existence of the wild relatives of the many cultivated plants in a GMZ established in forest lands can be expected. Thus, the cooperation between MARA and MOF is certainly necessary for these types of GMZs. The necessary principles and details of this and other types of GMZs should be clearly stated in the GMZ frame-work regulations. A personnel policy which gives the priority to experts needed for in situ gene conservation programs should be adopted by the involving institutions to have continuity and stability in gene conservation works.

 

 

1.4 Economic Evaluation of in situ Conservation of Plant Genetic Resources

In situ gene conservation programs are long term, requiring experts in the field and quite expensive programs to run. The cost of conservation will increase naturally since there will not be any production if the the GMZs are located in pasture or forest lands. However, it will be difficult to give any figure about the extra cost which will be brought about by establishment of GMZs because we do not know at the moment how many GMZs are needed and what their sizes will be exactly. But it is expected that a steady growing program ( i.e. gradual establishments of new GMZs for the target plant species listed as priority 1 and 2 in the Plan) will cost to the Turkish Government as much as the cost of existing protected lands.

 

It is also well known that establishment of GMZs for forest trees and wild relatives of crop species in Turkey will not create much return for the country in short term, but investments made today on in situ conservation of plant genetic resources will generate a substantial return for Turkey as well as the World in the future. The economic aspect of the in situ conservation of plant genetic resources can not be evaluated in standard cost-benefit analysis. But it is recommended that the functions such as climatic regulation, watershed and soil protection, hydrological function, harboring genetic resources, wildlife potential, provision of research and recreational opportunities are values which can not be measured in economical terms. As an example of returns on the use of wild relatives, conservation of wild relatives of rice can be given. On the other hand, there are examples of how costly a forestry program could be in the absence of proper forest genetic resources (Personal Communication, F.T. Ledig, 1996). The wild as well as domesticated genetic resources of crops species which are essential to feed the increased world population will be conserved effectively in situ to meet the future needs and demands in crop improvement programs.

 

Considering the present and future benefits of the existing in situ gene conservation programs (including GMZs), a cost-benefit analysis should be conducted. If there are negative economic impacts on local people with the establishments of GMZs, then, in situ conservation of plant genetic resources will fail in GMZs. Therefore, with an active community participation and other stakeholders’ involvement, the ways or programs should be developed to overcome the negative economic impacts on local people.

 

Economists and biologists should develop new methodologies and systems to be able to evaluate economically the in situ conservation programs in short and long term. For each GMZ, the prepared management plans should include some developmental projects which will help to reduce the cost of establishing and operating of GMZs.

 

The utilization of plant species with bulbs and tubers, medicinal and aromatic values, should be evaluated with respect to legal and biological aspects. The cultivation techniques for these kinds of species need to be developed for income generation to local people.

 

The plant species, which have no commercial value and not utilized today but have the potential to be used in future, should be determined. The population dynamics, biological and ecological characteristics and distributions of these species should be studied. Cultivation techniques to produce them economically should be developed.

 

2. Implementation of the Plan

 

2.1 Public Establishment

 

Before the National Plan is implemented, the introduction of the Plan at the national and international levels should be made aggressively and well organized public awareness programs should be launched. Internationally, scientific and financial organizations should be informed in order to get financial support for the estimated costs in the Plan. The following means could be used for effective public awareness programs for the in situ conservation of the plant genetic resources:

 

-The supports from the President and Prime Minister of Turkey

-Turkish MOF, MARA, MOE, Ministry of Education

-Universities-Presidency of Religious Affairs

-The NGOs

-Visual and written media

-Local Administrations

 

To maintain the in situ conservation of biological and genetic diversity subjects in daily agenda in the country, the Ministry of Environment should develop an effective public awareness project with cooperation with the above organizations.

 

 

2.2 Funding Methods

A steady-funding is needed to implement successfully the 'National Plan for in situ Conservation of Plant Genetic Diversity in Turkey'. To solve the funding problem in short term, HBGC should be formed as soon as possible to seek the possible financial sources for funding of in situ gene conservation programs. For the implementation of National Plan, there are mainly three financial sources:

 

1) General Budget Sources,

2) International Sources,

3) Donations to General Budget by gene resource users

With the quick arrangements in short term, the financial sources can be provided by the local administrations (municipal government, etc.) or transferred from the Environmental Pollution Prevention Fund.

 

In long term, a National Fund should be established for the conservation of genetic diversity: The following group of people, organizations or institutions should be liable to contribute to such a funding.

 

a) Institutions, organizations or persons using or managing plant materials (from producers to end users, including middle-men) as part of their business or trade activities,

b) Institutions, organizations or persons using or managing natural resources (non-living) as raw materials in their business and trade activities such as oils, mines etc.,

c) Institutions, organization, and persons doing business (from production to consumption steps) on plant genetic resources,

d) Institutions, organization, and persons having financial profit directly or indirectly from natural ecosystems by doing activities (ecotourism),

e) Governmental, private organizations and persons affecting directly or indirectly the natural ecosystems with their business activities such as factories, coal-run power stations, State Water Affairs, Turkish Electricity Institute, Highways, Collective Housing Fund, Tourism Companies, Municipals, Farms, General Directory of Forestry, Sea and Air Transportation Businesses, Truck Transportation Companies, Governmental Railway etc..

f) Institutions, organization, and persons having property close to protected lands or natural ecosystems and allowing their land to be used for the purpose of vacation and tourism.

 

2.3 Priority Research Topics

There is a need to carry out many studies and in different areas which have been already mentioned in the previous sections. Also, a list of research topics on in situ conservation of plant genetic resources have been provided in Appendix 1. Research topics with priorities that should be carried out in the early stages of the National Plan implementation can be outlined as follows::

 

* The floristic composition of presently protected areas should be reviewed, the detailed distribution maps for the target species should be prepared and potential GMZs areas should be taken into temporary conservation status.

* The management plans according to the principles of in situ gene conservation of plant genetic resources should be prepared for the areas reserved as in situ gene conservation sites including GMZs.

* The population biology, autoecology, and genetics of the target species indicated in the National Plan should be studied in the populations in protected and non-protected lands.

* To determine effectively the number and sizes of GMZs for the target plant species indicated in the National Plan, the population genetics studies helping to determine the effective population size (or minimum viable population size) should be carried out in populations of target plant species

* The effects of anthropogenic factors (air pollution, fire, harvesting techniques, grazing etc.) on the genetic composition of target species populations should be determined.

* For the areas set aside as GMZs as well as already existing in situ gene conservation areas, the managements plans should be prepared by considering the principles of the in situ conservation programs.

* A list of land races for the cultivated plants in the country and the in situ conservation projects for these cultivars should be developed.

* To get attention of the local people for the effective in situ gene conservation programs, projects that will create employment in the conservation of plant resources for the local people should be developed.

* To prevent the degradation as well as destruction of the genetic structure of populations of plant species which are collected improperly and traded, the projects should be developed for cultivation techniques (genetic improvement and agriculture) of such plants.

* To reduce the pressure created by human impact and grazing on plant genetic resources, prototype cultivated pasture lands and animal farm projects should be developed by the MARA.

* The research topics and areas, which can be carried out by the NGOs and private organizations due to their expertise, should be determined to have their contribution to the conservation activities.

* The studies on the CBS communication network should be developed to get the information related to the biological diversity in GMZs .

 

GLOSSARY

 

Allele: One of two or more alternative forms of a gene.

 

Arboretum: These are the ex situ sites where limited numbers of specimen from different tree species grown under special care and design. Such sites are used mainly for research and educational purposes. Arboretums are also places where researchs on various taxonomic,ecological, genetic and physiological features can effectively be performed.

 

Auto-ecology: It is the “individual ecology” which is opposite of the “community ecology”, and covers all the relationships of an individual with its environment.

 

Biological diversity: The variety and variations among living organisms and ecological systems.

 

Biogeography: Studying the geographical distributions of animal and plant species.

 

Botanical gardens: These areas have similar ex situ functions as arboretums. Main difference is that, the botanical gardens focuses more on annual, perennial and bushy plant species as well as trees.

 

Collection Gardens : These are the places where the vegetatively propagated plants are grown and

conserved.

 

Conservation Forest : Forest areas established to prevent soil erosion or slide, and to protect the air, highways and urbanization areas against dust and sand storms, and to prevent the watershed and rivers

to be full, and to help for the national defense.

 

Crossing: Making hybridizations between two individuals with different genetic structures to combine their genes under controlled pollination conditions.

 

Ecology: Study of the interactions between the living organism and all environmental components

surrounding it. It has many subsections.

 

Ecosystem: A community of organisms interacting with each other as well as interacting with the

environment which they live.

 

Ecotypic Differentiation: The differences exhibited by the individuals same taxa from the individuals sharing same taxonomy grown in different environment.

 

Exotic plant: The plant introduced from a country where it was originated and adapted.

 

Effective Population Size: It is the size of area in related to individual number that it needs to cover to maintain its genetic diversity in the population.

Electrophoresis: The processes of differential movement of charged molecules through a porous media by the help of electrical field.

 

Endangered: It is the situation in which species, subspecies or population are threatened with extinction,

and the taxonomic unit is not able to survive when the dangerous factors are continued.

 

Enzyme: Groups of proteins produced in living cells catalyze the important biological reactions in living organisms.

 

Ex situ conservation: Ex situ sites or ex situ conservation areas are the places outside of the natural habitats of species where certain number of specimen are protected, bred, reproduced and grown. Main purpose of ex situ conservation areas is to secure the existence of species that face risks of extinction in their natural habitats, and to regenerate them to be used as genetic stock when needed in the future.

 

Gene: Basic functional unit of inheritance responsible for the heritability of traits.

 

Gene Banks: An institution or center involved in the management of genetic resources,specially collecting genetic materials for In situ and ex situ conservation.

 

Gene flow: The movement of genes within and between population by means of open-pollination and natural selection.

 

Geneticdiversity: The possession of variety of genetic traits resulting frequently in differing expressions in different individuals of populations or species.

 

Gene pool: All of the genes and their alleles present in populations of a species where gene exchanges are common make up this pool.

 

Genetic resources: All of the genes necessary for genetic improvement of organisms.

 

Gene Conservation Forest: The plant communities found in their natural habitats with area ranging from 10 to 100 hectares and managed to develop uneven aged forest stands.

 

Gene Management Zones:Gene conservation areas set aside for target species where long term evolutionary and ecological processes can be monitored.

 

Genotype: The genetic constitution of an individual or group that may be expressed or unexpressed depending on environmental conditions.

 

Habitat: The natural environment where an organism is usually found.

 

Heterozygosity:The presence of one or more different alleles of a gene in locus.

 

Homozygosity: The presence of the same alleles of a gene in a locus.

 

Habitat corridors: Forest lands that connect similar forest habitats separated physically from each other. Such corridors could be either already existing forests, new forests, protection forests and green belts around settlement areas to be established as one part of national biodiversity action plan.

 

In situ conservation: Conservation of living organisms in their natural habitats.

 

Maquis: The Mediterranean bushy vegetation mostly consisted of xerophytic and evergreen taxa.

 

Minimum Viable Population Size: The size of population below which population size can not remain stable or increase in number, but it will decline or disappear due to inbreeding and genetics individuals that may not allow to produce sufficient number of offspring that is, gene resources of that particular species are in danger.

 

National Parks: The protected areas which have interesting flora or fauna composition as well as scenic attractions to provide recreational services to public.Nature conservation areas: The protected areas which are strict nature reserves set aside to protect ecosystems, communities and species to maintain natural processes in undisturbed state in order to have ecologically representative examples of endangered or threatened natural environments available for maintaining genetic resources in a dynamic and evolutionary state for scientific study, environmental monitoring and education.

 

Natural Monuments: The places with unique natural beauty and scientific values resulted from natural processes.

 

Nature Conservation Areas:The protected areas which are strict nature reserves set aside to protect ecosystems, communities and species to maintain natural processes in undisturbed state in order to have ecologically representative examples of endangered or threatened natural environments available for maintaining genetic resources in a dynamic and evolutionary state for scientific study, environmental monitoring and education.

 

Nature Parks: The protected areas which have interesting flora or fauna composition as well as scenic attractions to provide recreational services to public.

Phenotype: The total influence of genetic and environmental factors on a living organism.

 

Plant association: It is the basic unit of plant sociology existing under uniform environmental condition (especially soil) and referring certain composition with uniform appearance.

 

Plant formation: is the basic plant ecological unit referring plant communities such as forests, shrubs,

and steppes having individuals of different species with similar form and appearance.

Plant community: is referred to plant groups consisting of different genus and species living together

and defined with dominant species.

 

Plant Genetic Resources: The natural populations, cultivars or land races of the wild relatives of crop

species and globally important forest tree species native to a country or in a region that genes needed by

breeders and scientists can be derived.

 

Population: A group of organisms of the same species interbred each other and occupy particular geographic region or area.

Protection forest: As defined in Article 23 of the present Forest Act, Protection forests include those forested areas that are subject to land slides; lands that have high amenity values around the residential areas, streams and rivers, along the highways and railroads; and finally the forest areas that have protection functions against soil erosion (by wind and/or flood) and against invasion by sand dunes.

 

Seed orchards: These are the kinds of orchards specifically established for a given forest tree species to obtain seeds with relatively high genetic quality for a given forest region. Trees represented in a seed orchard are the so called “plus trees”, selected on the basis of certain desirable growth characteristics from forests in a given ecological zone. The seeds and/or scions of the plus trees are first brought to a nursery where they are grafted and/or grown. A few years later, they are transferred to a seed orchard where they grow permanently to produce seed. Trees in seed orchards are genetically evaluated and eventually rouged to improve their genetic qualities further by obtaining results from progeny tests.

 

Seed stands: Planted or naturally regenerated forest stands requiring minimum 25 ha. area and special silvicultural practices to produce high quality seed for regeneration programs.

 

Relic plant species: Widespread species in the past, but today having very narrow distribution due to changed environmental conditions.

 

Succession: The event of one thing following another chronically. In ecology, the sequence of changes in populations and species compositions.

 

Target species: The plant species which have valuable genetic resources for the improvement of crop and forest tree species in the future.

 

Vegetation: The term is used to define the sum total of plants covering an area.

 

Viable Minimum Population Size : It is the specific number of collective community where the number of individuals in a population can not reached in a specific level since it is not enough progeny produced in next generations due to genetic depression caused by the reduced number of individuals in a population.

 

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SOULE, M. E., 1986. Conservation Biology: The Science of Scarcity and Diversity. Sinauer Assoc., INC. Sunderland, Mass. 554 p.

 

SPELLENBERG. I.F. and S.R. HARDES, 1992. Biological Conservation. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 123 p.

 

ŞEHİRALİ, S. ve M. ÖZGEN, 1987. Bitkisel Gen Kaynakları. Ankara Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Yayınları No.1020, Ankara, 294 s.

 

TAN, A., 1995. International Conference and Programme for Plant Genetic Resources. Turkey-Country Report. 36 p.

THEOPHILE, K., 1995.The Forest as a Business: Is ecoturism the answer? J. of Forestry. 93 (3): 25-27.

 

TOSUN,O., 1965. New Crops Screening of Native Plants of Turkey of Potantial use in Agriculture of the United States and Turkey. Final Research Report, Ankara, 55 s.

 

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WWW and IUCN, 1994. Centers of Plant Diversity. A guide and strategy for their conservation. Volume 1, IUCN publication Unit, Cambridge, UK, pp. 293-350.

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YALTIRIK, F.,1984,Türkiye Meşeleri Teşhis Kılavuzu: Tarım Orman ve Köyişleri Bakanlığı Orman Genel Müd.Yay. Yenilik Basımevi, İstanbul.

ZHUKOVSKY, P.M.,1951. Türkiye’ nin Zirai Bünyesi (Anadolu). Türkiye Şeker Fabrikaları Neşriyatı No.20.

ZOHARY, M., 1973. Geobotanical Foundations of the Middle East. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

APPENDICES

APPENDIX-1: The Information for Conservation of the Genetic Diversity

1. Gene Management Zones

 

GMZs are the conservation areas for maintaining the genetic diversity as well as the areas allowing the evolutionary processes to be continued in populations of endangered, or economically important plant species with high potential of genetic diversity and differentiation. GMZs could be selected from natural or semi-natural areas where the sustainable utilization and effective conservation of genetic resources of target species are possible.

 

GMZs are the protected and managed areas with the purpose of maintaining the genetic diversity and evolutionary process.” Even though the GMZs are defined for one or more than one target species, the biological diversity and maintenance of evolutionary process for non-target species in defined areas can be also achieved by the conservation of ecosystem and habitat together. But the first priority should be given to the conservation of genetic diversity in target species in a selected GMZ.

 

1.1 Selection Criteria of Target Species and Effective Population Sizes For Target Species.

 

a)Selection Criteria

 

The species with local and global importance, economically important, rare, naturally distributed, endemic or endangered species (e.g., wild relatives of crop species, medicinal plants, globally or locally important forest tree species etc.) could be considered as target plant species. The target species is expected to have the origin or gene diversity center in the country. The species with local and global importance, economically important, endemic or endangered could be also selected as target species. Any of the followings could be a criteria to select the target species.

1) The species should have priority in terms of local and global importance,

2) The species should be naturally occurring in the origin or gene diversity center,

3) The species should be endemic,

4) The species should be rare or endangered species,

5) The species should be economically important,

6) The species should show a specific ecosystem,

7) The species should be indication of ecosystem degeneration,

8) The species should be important in ecological balance.

 

The list of species that could be defined as the target plant species is given in Table 7. The species list on Table 7 could be updated or modified upon changes in national and international policies and accumulation of scientific data.

 

b) Effective Population Size

 

The population size needed to maintain the genetic integrety and viability of target species and the ecosystems in which they are found will depend on the size of the plants, their mating system, and extend of gene flow. The reproduction biology and population genetics of target species are required to determine the “Minimum Viable Population Size” (MVP) for each species. The theoretical information suggested by experts should be used at the moment since the estimation of MVP is difficult. Therefore, the following information on population size can be used as a guideline until necessary data become available for MVP size estimation (for more information , see Adams et al. (eds.)1990; Falk and Holsinger (Eds.)1991).

 

There should be 5000-10 000 individuals in the population to maintain the existing genetic variation in the wild relatives of cultivated plants. These limits depend on the reproductive biology of the species. The sizes of GMZs may vary depending on species charactersitics such as species being annual vs. perennial, self vs. outcrossing.

 

The other concept related to population size is the “Effective Population Size” (EPS). This concept describes the essential population size for the main-tenance of existing genetic diversity in plant populations. Calculated EPS values for some forest trees vary between 1000-10 000 individuals. Population genetic studies will help to estimate the EPSs for target plant species and the size of conservation areas (GMZ) can be effectively determined.

1.2. The Selection Criteria for Gene Management Zones

 

The selection criteria for the Gene Management Zones are listed below.

1) GMZ should include the target species.

2) GMZ should represent the core genetic diversity of the target species.

3) The number and size of the GMZ should be defined depending on the target species’ reproduction biology, genetic diversity in the species, evolutionary potential, the structure of the population and the possibilities of conservation.

4) The number and size of the GMZ should be varied depending on the sources available.

5) GMZ should include as much as possible genetic diversity and species richness.

6) GMZ can be selected from natural or semi natural areas.

7) For an effective management, GMZ should be easily accessible for conservation activities.

8) GMZ can be defined in the marginal and isolated populations of the target species.

9) The sensitive and rare ecosystems in the distribution of target species should not be ignored while selecting the GMZ.

10) At least two GMZs should be established for each target species within the same ecogeographic zone in order to save the target species against the possible catastrophic events

 

1.3 Management Strategies of Gene Management Zones

 

The answers for the questions such as "how will the responsibility in conservation and management of genetic diversity be distributed?", "how will the gene conservation management plans l be prepared and implemented?" should be clearly given for effective in situ conservation.

Considering the institutes and their backgrounds in Turkey, the distribution of management responsibility for the conservation of genetic diversity does not seem to be an important problem since the most of lands where the important plant genetic resources occur are state owned lands. Thus, there will be seldom a need for land acquisition from private organizations. However, the priority in GMZ site selection should be given to those sites in government land for effective long term in situ gene conservation.

 

The establishment and management of the GMZs need to be based on the legal bases and managements. For this purpose, at the moment, there is no need for new legislation. The management of GMZ can be conducted with the help of existing legislation as well as signing protocols for cooperation between related ministries. Although in establishment of new GMZs, the priority will be given those already within a protected land, the preparation of special management plans for each GMZ is required to have the active support and participation of all stakeholders in GMZ managements.

 

Whether the GMZs are in a government land or a specific conservation area (NP, GCF, etc.) or in private lands, the special methods and continuity have special place in the conservation of plant genetic resources in GMZs. Therefore, the options for management practices that will not damage the GMZ concept should be considered in the preparation of local plans and the forest management where the GMZ is in. The determination of GMZs that include as many target species as possible and the preparation of management plans for each GMZ is needed. On the other hand, a complete management plan for monitoring the target species is necessary and useful. The principles of GMZs can be listed as follows:

1. A Management Plan for each GMZ is required and the principles to prepare one are as follows:

a) The continuation of the genetic diversity should be the most important objective of the plan.

b) The continuation of the species in their ecosystems is the basic principle. The Management Plan should consider the richness in genetic diversity of target plant species as well as the richness of biodiversity and competition between the species.

c) Different techniques and processes can be necessary to use as the part of Management Plan in order to maintain the genetic diversity.

d) In the Management Plan, a series of cultural and silvicultural applications should be included to prevent possible potential dangers against the genetic resources of target species.

e) The GMZ should include a core area and buffer zone around it. The management of buffer zones should be included in the GMZ as the part of the Management Plan.

f) The support and active participation of the local people are essential for effective management and maintenance of GMZs. The studies such as the public education for locals and taking measures to solve the socio-economic problems occurring due to establishment of GMZs should be included in Management Plans.

2. The establishment, management and maintenance of GMZs should be based on the legal status. If an established GMZ has already an administrative structure, these types of areas should be managed by the institutions where the GMZs are in. The RBGC consisting of a representative from each institute and the institute which is responsible for management should be also responsible for preparing and implementing the GMZ management plans.

3. HBGC which should include a representative from the each related organization should be established. The function of HBGC should be to review the current and future gene conservation activities and make policies for effective in situ conservation programs.

 

4. The support and participation of local people in the management of GMZs should be achieved.

5. The management plans of the GMZs should be added to existing other plans.

 

6. In situ conservation programs in the GMZs need to be supported by ex situ conservation programs and these areas should be evaluated as genetic material source for the ex situ and cultivar development studies.

 

7. The GMZ areas should be open the researchers in the country and abroad with the legal arrangements

8. The joint management strategies in GMZs, where the woody and herbaceous species are found together, should be developed by involving institutions. The joint management plans should be prepared with consideration of these strategies and should be implemented with the determined principles.

9. Legal and administrative arrangements should be made to conduct GMZ related activities.

 

1.4 The Research Topics in Gene Management Zones

The research topics that could be studied in GMZs are given below without any priority.

 

* Determining the priorities of target species,

* The collecting information in a center in related to the distribution areas of the target species,

* The genetic structures and variation within the target species populations,

* Determining the minimum population size for target species ,

* The development of silvicutural methods for management of the mixed forest including target species,

* Research for the appropriate methods for maintaining genetic diversity in target species in GMZs,

* Evaluation of the sampling methods,

* Genotype-environment interactions for the target species,

* Determination of pathogen-target plant species relationships

* Physiology and reproductive biology of target species,

* Effects of global changes on target species,

* Cost analysis for GMZs,

* Determination of the biotic and abiotic factors affecting the GMZ and their evaluation,

* Effects of environmental pollutions on the GMZs,

* Determining the resistant genotypes to biotic and abiotic pressures in target species ,

* Determining the ecological, economical and pathological potentials of the species,

* Plant evolution and taxonomic researches,

* Ex situ studies related to GMZ for the target species,

* Determination of genetic diversity criteria,

* Seed physiology in terms of conservation of the genetic resources,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2. Population Sampling Criteria for Conservation

 

Sampling within or between populations are the basis for the population genetic and plant conservation studies. Therefore, a good sampling that is done either to have representative conservation collections (ex situ) or determining the appropriate number and size of the populations for in situ conservation should be taken

 

However, it is very difficult to design a firm guideline for genetic sampling of populations of a given species since there is not enough genetic data for every species which we are interested in. Therefore, a general guideline here will be proposed and the details of it for a particular species should be worked out by considering the available genetic data (for more information , see Adams et al. (eds.) 1990; Falk and Holsinger (Eds.) 1991). However, the main points which should be taken into consideration during the decision making are as follows:

 

2.1 Selection of Target Species

 

The first step in samplings related to the conservation of the plant genetic diversity is to determine the species with high priority. The species with high priority for the in situ or ex situ conservation of the species should have the following characteristics:

1) The species should be endangered or endemic,

2) The species should be under the rapid erosion in terms of population number and width due to human effect,

3) The species should be rare in terms of evolution and taxonomy,

4) The species should have biologically and economically important potential,

5) The species should have the potential gene source for agricultural and economical purposes,

6) The species should have the potential for cultivation and long term storage (for ex situ objective),

2.2 Number of Population To Be Sampled

 

Number of samples taken from the species showing high genetic variation should be high as well (the situation where there is not much gene flow among the populations). General characteristics of this type of species are the followings:

 

a) Imminent destruction of populations,

b) High observed ecotypic or site variation,

c) Existence of isolated populations,

d) Potential for biological management and recovery,

e) Recently evolved or rare species,

f) Self fertilization,

g) Herbaceous annual or short lived-perennial,

h) Gravity, explosively, or animal dispersed seed,

I) Dicots or monocots.

2.3 Number of Genotype Needed for a Population

Samples from 10-50 individuals per population could be sufficient in normal cases, but in determining the actual size, consideration should be given to relevant life-history characteristics, population history and other factors that may influence the natural distribution of variation. For instance, for ex situ conservation or genetic studies of the populations, sampling size should be larger since the initial number of individuals in the population is low or when the species to the old habitats are reintroduced. The factors which correlate with high diversity within populations require larger sampling sizes. The following characteristics of the species are important in determining the the sampling size :

a) Observed micro-site variation within populations,

b) Mixed pollination (self or open pollination) or out-crossing,

c) Fragmented historical population,

d) Neighborhood size affecting the reproduction,

e) Low survival rate of seeds,

f) Extremely large populations,

g) Gymnosperm or monocot,

h) Long lived woody perennial,

I) Late successional stage,

j) Animal or wind dispersed seed.

 

2.4 Seed and Propagule Numbers To Be Taken for a Genotype

 

While determining the number of seeds or propagules per individual, the number should be large at the beginning by considering the 1/ (s/N) seeds or propagules per individuals where s/N is the survival ratio of propagules until germination.

 

2.4.1 Collection of Material Propagated by Seed

The methods given this subsection are the methods to be applied for sampling the cultivated plants and their relatives. The strategies for collecting material from these propagated by seed depends on the genetic structure of the species and the gene flow among its populations. Therefore, first, the sampling should be done in large areas to represent the all region. This sampling which is called as “coarse grid” sampling should be done in 20-50 km interval if the area sampled, climate, soil type, vegetation, cultural applications, various crops grown, and the altitude are homogeneous. The sampling should be done in each 100 m altitude since this character comparing the factors varies rapidly. When the small variation is observed within the samples sampled in large intervals, the sampling called as “fine grid ” sampling should be applied in the same region to collect specific genotypes (resistant to drought, diseases etc.). Wild populations should be sampled at least two times in different years since the climatic variations change the vegetation composition from year to year.

In case, there is difficulty in sampling from the field due to various reasons, the samples could be taken from the local markets or farmer barns. In random sampling, total 5000 seeds obtained by taking 50 seeds from each of the 100 plants should be sampled since the number of plant per sample changes depending on the population type. When the population are homogenous, total 2500 seeds obtained by taking 50 seeds from each of the 50 plants should be sampled. The seeds should be taken from the plants which do not have any disease symptom or insect damage. The samples collected should be placed in cloth or paper sacks which will permit air circulation. The seed samples should be cleaned and dried. The seeds are needed to be dried as soon as possible in the harvest time when the air moisture is high to prevent the development of mold organisms. If the heaters are used, the temperature should not be over the 40 oC.

 

The seeds of the vegetables such as tomato, pepper, squash, cucumber, eggplant should be sampled from their fruits. The biggest fruit should be picked and put in a cloth or paper sacks for ripening processes if the fruits do not not ripe sufficiently on time.

 

2.4.2 Collection of Material Propagated by Rhizome and Tuber

 

The plants propagated by the rhizome, tuber, and bulb are collected with two different methods used separately for wild and cultivated material.

 

Wild Material : Only one reproductive organ (fruits or seeds) should be taken from each of 10-15 individuals to have total sampling in this material. If the reproductive organs are big or difficult to take, 2-3 individuals are enough. It should be avoided to take repeated samples on the same clone. If it is possible, the seed samples should be taken and different numbers should be given to them. The herbarium samples can be also taken if there is enough time.

 

Cultivated material : In this type of material, the samples are not taken randomly since there are vegetatively propagated clones. In this sampling, the cultivars with different morphology should be sampled in a bazaar or farms in villages. This process should be repeated in several places depending on the distance between villages or bazaars. The seed samples should be taken and labeled with the same number or different number whether hey are sampled from the same vegetative organs or not, respectively.

 

2.4.3 Collection of Materials from Fruit Trees and Shrubs

 

Wild Material : The seeds collected from a small area or about 10 ha area are put together to establish a sample bank. As much as seed possible per sample should be taken. When the seeds can not be taken or the conditions are not appropriate for viable seed collections, one scion or cuttings should be taken from 10-15 individual tree. These processes can be repeated depending on the climate, altitude or soil differences. More than one sample should be taken from each group in the situations where the trees are propagated by clonal means. The seeds or vegetative material (scion, cuttings, adventitious-shoot cuttings) should be taken rapidly to the places where they will be planted or transplanted.

 

Cultivated material : The seeds or fruit samples should be taken when the vegetative materials are not available. When the tree to be sampled is propagated by seed, 10-15 individual trees in a village should be considered as whole collection sample. The vegetative material should be sampled if the seeds can not be taken. If the clonal production of trees are possible, each of the type or cultivars should be sampled separately by taking the vegetative material such as cuttings or scions. Many villages and places as many as possible should be sampled in different intervals. The seeds or scions should be stored in cool and moist environment and should be taken rapidly to the places where they will be planted or transplanted.

 

2.5 Completion of Sampling Time

 

Sufficient amount of seed or vegetative or reproductive organs in especially some forest trees and bushes can not be sampled due to the reproductive potential and age of species as well time limitation in studies. In these situations, completion of sampling may be spread in a few years depending on the target seeds that can be obtained in a year.

 

 

 

3. THE INFORMATION NEEDED TO BE COLLECTED IN AN AREA FOR

EACH GENOTYPE IN THE SAMPLING STUDIES FOR TREES

 

Collection Date: ........(D)/........(M)/ ........(Y). Species Name:

a) Geographic and topographic information on the location where sample is taken:

 

GMZ No.: Province: Town: Village:

 

Name of Regional Directorate:

Name of Management Directorate:

Name of Management unit:

Name of Forest Series/ and No:

 

Altitude (m) Latitude N Longitude E

 

Slope Aspect

 

Soil (type, stoniness, drainage etc.)

 

 

 

 

Your comments (please draw a map and describe the location of the tree on the map. You could use the back of this page):

 

 

 

 

b) Biological information concerning the sample tree and the population

 

Age of the sampled tree :

 

Age of stand if the species forms well stocked stands :

 

Vegetation type and composition of species in the location :

Type of collected material for isoenzymes assay :

If the seeds are the collected material, comment on the seed production year :

 

 

The other information to be added :

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

APPENDIX- 2:Tables

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 1. List of the most important indigenous economic plants of Anatolia.

 

Food Plants

-Amygdalus communis (Almond)

-Armeniaca vulgaris (Apricot)

-Beta vulgaris (Sugar beet)

-Castanea sativa (Chestnut)

-Cerasus avium (Cherry)

-Cerasus vulgare (Sour cherry)

-Ceratonia siliqua (Carob)

-Cicer arietinum (Chick pea)

-Corylus avellana (Hazel nut)

-Corylus colurna (Hazel nut)

-Corylus maxima (Hazel nut)

-Ficus carica (fig)

-Hordeum spp. (Barley)

-Juglans regia (Walnut)

-Lens culinaris (lentil)

-Olea europaea (olive)

-Punica granatum (Pomegranate)

-Secale cereale (Rye)

-Trigonella foenum-graecum

-Triticum spp. (Wheat)

-Vicia faba (Faba beans)

 

Fiber plants

-Linum usitatissimum (Flax)

Oil plants

-Carthamus tinctorius (Sufflower)

-Linum usitatissimum

-Olea europaea

Gum and resin plants

-Astragalus gummifer

-Cistus creticus

-Liquidambar orientalis

-Pinus spp. (Pine)

-Pistacia lentiscus

 

Timber trees

-Abies spp. (Fir)

-Alnus spp. (Alder)

-Carpinus spp. (Hornbeam)

-Acer spp. (Maple)

-Cedrus libani (Cedar)

-Castanea sativa (Chestnut)

-Cupressus sempervirens (Cypress)

-Fagus orientalis (Beech)

-Juglans regia (Walnut)

-Juniperus spp. (Juniper)

-Olea europaea

-Pinus spp.(Pine)

-Quercus spp. (Oak)

-Populus spp. (Poplar)

Dye Plants

-Alkanna tinctoria

-Anchusa italica

-Anthemis tinctoria

-Arnebia spp.

-Asperugo procumbens

-Chrozophora tinctoria

-Echium italicum

-Isatis tinctoria

-Rubia tinctoria

 

Herbs and Plants with essential oils and fragrances

-Achillea spp.

-Artemisia spp.

-Lavandula stoechas

-Origanum spp.

-Rosmarinus officinalis

-Salvia spp.

-Satureja spp.

-Sideritis spp.

-Thymus spp.

 

 

Medicinal Plants

-Achillea santolina

-Ammi spp.

-Anagyris foetida

-Artemisia herba-alba

-Cannabis sativa (Hemp)

-Citrullus colocynthis

-Crocus sativus

-Datura stramonium

-Digitalis spp. (Fox glove)

-Eryngium campestre

-Foeniculum vulgare

-Glycyrrhiza spp. (Licorice)

-Haplophyllum tuberculatum

-Hyoscyamus spp.

-Juniperus phoenicia

-Marrubium spp.

-Mentha pulegium (Mint)

-Myrtus communis

-Papaver somniferum (Opium Poppy)

-Peganum harmala

-Rhamnus spp.

-Ruta chalepensis

-Salvia fruticosa

-Silybum marianum

-Symphytum spp.

-Teucrium polium

-Thymus spp. (Thyme)

-Tribulus terrestris

-Urginea maritima

-Verbascum sinuatum

-Verbena officinalis

-Ziziphus jujuba

 

Horticultural Plants

-Allium spp. (Onion)

-Anemone spp.

-Asparagus spp.

-Asphodeline spp.

-Asphodelus spp.

-Bellevalia spp.

-Chionodoxa spp.

-Colchicum spp.

-Cyclamen spp.

-Dionysia spp.

-Eranthis hyemalis

-Fritillaria spp.

-Gagea spp.

-Galanthus spp.

-Gladiolus spp.

-Hyacinthella spp.

-Hyacinthus orientalis

-Iris spp.

-Ixiolirion tataricum

-Lilium spp.

-Muscari spp.

-Narcissus spp.

-Ophrys spp.

-Orchis spp.

-Ornithogalum spp.

-Pancratium maritimum

-Rosa spp.

-Scilla spp.

-Sternbergia spp.

-Tulipa spp.

 

 

 

Table 2. Number of native, endemic, exotic and cultivated plant species

present in Turkey.

 

 

Native

Endemic

% of

endemic

Exotics

Cultivated

TOTAL

Ferns

86

1

0.01

0

0

86

Gymnosperms

23

3*

0.03

0

0

23

Angiosperms-Dicots

7258

2509

28.69

65

92

7415

Angiosperms-Monocots

1359

249

2.86

18

46

1423

TOTAL:

8745

2763

31.59

83

138

8966

 

 

* Endemic subspecies.

 

 

Table 3. The list of fern and seed plant families with large number of species native in Turkey.

 

 

FAMILIES

Native

Endemic

Yabancı Yabancı Yabancı Yabancı Yab Exotics

Cultivated

TOTAL

1

Compositeae

1144

436

16

8

1168

2

Leguminoseae

977

391

0

16

993

3

Labiateae

551

245

1

2

554

4

Crucifereae

516

199

2

4

552

5

Gramineae

486

52

7

22

515

6

Caryophyllaceae

469

189

0

0

469

7

Scrophulariaceae

467

245

3

0

470

8

Umbelliferae

420

120

1

2

423

9

Liliaceae

412

139

2

8

422

10

Boraginaceae

306

112

3

1

310

11

Rosaceae

249

49

1

4

254

12

Ranunculaceae

202

47

0

0

202

13

Rubiaceae

169

74

1

0

170

14

Campanulaceae

142

73

0

0

142

15

Cyperaceae

134

2

2

0

136

16

Euphorbiaceae

96

14

5

3

104

17

Orchidaceae

95

8

4

1

100

18

Chenopodiaceae

94

9

0

0

94

19

Dipsacaceae

89

34

0

0

89

20

Iridaceae

84

36

0

2

86

 

 

 

Table 4. List of 20 Genera with large number of species.

 

 

GENERA

Native

Endemic

Yabancı Yabancı Yabancı Yabancı Yab Exotics

Cultivated

TOTAL

1

Astragalus

401

243

0

0

401

2

Verbascum

233

186

0

0

233

3

Centaurea

177

109

1

0

178

4

Allium

143

50

1

4

148

5

Silene

131

53

0

0

131

6

Campanula

106

55

0

0

106

7

Galium

102

49

0

0

102

8

Hieracium

101

66

0

0

101

9

Trifolium

95

10

0

0

95

10

Alyssum

91

45

0

0

91

11

Onosma

90

53

0

0

90

12

Euphorbia

89

13

5

2

96

13

Salvia

87

44

0

0

87

14

Carex

85

1

1

0

86

15

Ranunculus

84

13

0

0

84

16

Veronica

82

22

0

0

82

17

Hypericum

80

37

0

0

80

18

Stachys

77

30

0

0

77

19

Dianthus

69

31

0

0

69

20

Vicia

61

7

0

0

61

 

 

Table 5. Distribution of endemic taxa according to the Geographic and Phytogeographic

regions inTurkey.

 

 

GEOGRAPHIC REGIONS

Number of Endemic Taxa*

1

Tracea

27

2

Northwestern Anatolia

124

3

Western Anatolia

260

4

Southwestern Anatolia

458

5

Western Black Sea

71

6

Central-Western Anatolia

45

7

Central Anatolia

926

8

Southern Anatolia

572

9

Northern Anatolia

93

10

Northeastern Anatolia

192

11

Eastern Anatolia

725

12

Southeastern Anatolia

236

 

PHYTOGEOGRAPHIC REGIONS

 

1

Euro-Siberian

218

2

Mediterrenean

1016

3

Irano -Turanian

1221

 

 

* Some endemic taxa are foud in several regions.Therefore, the total number in table

is not equal to the country total of endemics.

Table 6. Distribution of herbaceous and woody endemic plant species in

Turkey according to the former IUCN danger categories.

 

NT

 

O

 

K

 

 

I

 

 

R

 

 

V

 

 

E

 

 

EX

 

Not

Threa-

ened

 

 

Out of Danger

Not well known

Unknown

Rare

Vulne-

rable

Endan-gered

Extinct

TOTAL

798

5

 

282

49

1701

183

46

8

3072

 

 

Table 7. Distribution of woody endemic plant species in Turkey according to the new IUCN categories.*

 

Endemic

 

 

DD

 

 

LRcd

 

 

LRNT

 

 

LRc

 

VU

EN

 

CR

 

 

EW

 

 

EX

 

 

Total

84

 

22

10

95

433

5

-

1

-

3

569

 

 

*

Extinct:EX

Extinct in Wild:EW

Critically Endangered:CR

Endangered:EN

Vulnerable:VU

LowerRisk:LR

Lower Risk ConservationDependent:Rcd

Lower Risk Near Threatened:LRnt

Lower Risk Least Consern:LRlc

Data Deficient:DD

Not Evaluated:NE

 

 

 

 

Table 8. Target plant species for in situ conservation of genetic diversity in Turkey.

1) Agricultural plant species

a) Wild-relatives of agricultural plant species:

 

Field Crops

Priority:1

Triticum dicoccoides

Triticum boeoticum

Triticum urartu

Triticum araraticum

Aegilops speltoides

Aegilops squarrosa

Lens culinaris ssp.orientalis

Lens ervoides

Lens odemensis

Lens nigricans

Lens spp.

Cicer anatolicum

Cicer echinospermum

Cicer spp.

Pisum elatius

Pisum humile

Vicia sativa spp. sativa

Vicia sativa spp. nigra

Vicia sativa spp. macrocarpa

Vicia narbonensis

Vicia johannes

Vicia spp.

Lathyrus sativus

Lathyrus spp.

Priority:2

Medicago spp.(annual)

Medicago sativa

Medicago falcata

Medicago spp.(perannual)

Avena sativa

Avena byzantina

Hordeum spontaneum

Secale spp.

Onobrychis spp

Lupinus spp.

Vavilovia formosa

 

 

Fruit Species

Priority:1

Prunus spp.(inc. almond, cherry

and sour cherry)

Pyrus spp.

Pistachia spp.

Castanea sativa

Priority:2

Fragaria vesca

Vitis spp.

Ficus carica

Olea spp.

Malus spp.

Priority:3

Coryllus spp.

Punica

Rubus spp.

 

Vegetable Species:

Priority:1

Lactuca spp.

Allium spp.

Daucus spp.

Brassica spp.

 

Medicinal and Aromatic Species:

Priority:1

Orchidaceae speciesi

Origanum spp.

Salvia spp.

Sideritis spp.

Thymus spp.

Gypsophylla spp.

Priority:2

Digitalis spp.

Glycyrrhiza spp.

Gentiana spp.

 

 

Table 8. (cont.)

Industrial Plants*

 

Priority:1

 

Pimpinella spp

Papaver spp.

 

 

Ornemantal Plants*

 

Linum spp.

Beta spp

 

 

 

Priority:1

Cyclamen spp.

Galanthus spp.

Sternbergia spp.

Eranthis silicicus

Colchicum spp.

Crocus spp.

 

Priority:2

Fritillaria spp.

Iris spp.

Muscari spp.

Tulipa spp.

Dianthus spp.

 

Allium spp.

Gladiolus spp.

Ornithogalum spp.

 

 

 

 

b) Cultivated Plants (land races)**:

 

Priority:1

Priority:2

Triticum monococcum

Vitis vinifera

Triticum dicoccum

Prunus spp.

Cicer arietinum

Lens culinaris

Triticum aestivum

Triticum durum

Pyrus communis

Beta vulgaris Sensu lato

Punica granatum

Cydonia oblonga

Malus communis

Olea europea

Pistacia vera

Ficus carica

 

 

 

 

* Species with common distribution areas.

** Target species determined for on farm in situ conservation.

 

Table 8. (cont.)

2) Forest Trees*

 

 

Priority-1

Abies silicica -Taurus Fir

Abies nordmanniana

subsp.nordmanniana -East Black Sea Fir

subsp.equi-trojani -Kazdağı Fir

subsp.bormuelleriana -Uludağ Fir

Alnus glutinosa - Red Alder

Alnus orientalis -Oriental Alder

Betula pubescens - Hairy Birch

B.medwediewi

Buxus sempervirens - Box Tree

Castanea sativa - Anatolian Chestnut

Cedrus libani - Taurus Cedar

Ceratonia siliqua -Carob

Crataegus azarolus - Azarole

Cupressus sempervirens - Cypress

Fagus orientalis - Oriental Beech

Fraxinus angustifolia - Ash

Fraxinus excelsior

Fraxinus ornus subsp. ornus

Juglans regia - Walnut

Juniperus drupacea - Junipers

Juniperus excelsa

Juniperus foetidissima

 

 

 

 

 

 

Priority-1

Laurus nobilis - Mediterranean Laurel

Liquidambar orientalis - Sweet Gum

Olea europea - Wild Olive

Petrocarya fraxinifolia - Walnut

Picea orientalis - Oriental Spruce

Pinus brutia - Turkish Red Pine

Pinus halepensis - Aleppo Pine

Pinus nigra - Black Pine

Pinus pinea - Stone Pine

Pinus sylvestris - Scots Pine

Populus euphratica - Euphrate Poplar

Populus tremula -Trembling Poplar

Pyrus eleagnifolia - Wild Pear

Quercus aucheri - Oaks

Quercus hartwissiana

Quercus vulcanica

Taxus baccata - Yew

Tilia rubra - Caucasus Linden

Tilia tomentosa - Silvery Linden

Ulmus campestris - Elms

Ulmus carpinifolia

Ulmus glabra

 

 

* Revision of target species list will be conducted during the implementation of the National Plan.

 

Table 9. Established national parks in Turkey.

 

 

No:

 

NAME

 

PROVINCE

GEOGRA-PHIC REGIONS

REGIONAL FOREST DIREC-TORATE

FOREST MANAGE-MENT DIREC-TORATE

AREA (ha)

DATE OF ESTABL.

CHARACTERISTICS

1

 

Yozgat

Çamlığı

 

Yozgat

 

CENTRAL

ANATOLIA

 

Yozgat

 

Yozgat

 

264

 

5.02.1958

 

The only naturally occurrıng Anatolian black pine stand found in central Turkey.

 

2

Karatepe-

Aslantaţ

Adana

EAST

MEDITER.

 

Adana

Kadirli

7715

29.5.1958

Archeolgic remains,natural plant populations, recreation..

 

3

Soğuksu

Ankara

CENTRAL

ANATOLIA

Ankara

Kızılca-

hamam

1050

19.2.1959

Natural plant populations, recreation.

 

4

Kuţcenneti

Balıkesir

MARMARA

Balıkesir

Bandırma

64

27.7.1959

Rich in plant and bird diveristy in bird and plant communities,recreation.

 

5

Uludağ

 

Bursa

 

MARMARA

 

Bursa

 

Bursa

 

12732

20.9.1961 6.06.1996

bound.chn.

Geologic structure, Natural plant and animal communi-ties, mountain and snow sports

 

6

Yedigöller

Bolu

WEST

BLACK SEA

Zonguldak

Dirgine

2019

29.4.1965

Natural plant and animal communities, recreation.

 

7

Dilek Peninsula-

Menderes Delta

 

Aydın

AEGEAN

 

Aydın

 

Kuşadası

 

27675

 

31.3.1994

The best maquii flora of Mediterrenean, geologic structure, natural plant and animal communities,recreation.

8

 

Spil Dağı

 

Manisa

AEGEAN

 

Manisa

 

Manisa

5505

 

22.4.1968

Geologic structure, natural plant and animal communities, recreation.

9

Kızıldağ

Isparta

WEST

MEDITER.

Isparta

Ţarki-

Karaağaç

59400

9/05/1969

Natural plant communities,

recreation.

 

10

Termessos

 

Antalya

WEST

MEDITER.

Antalya

6702

3.11.1970

Archeological remains, natural plant communities, recreation.

 

11

Kovada

Lake

Isparta

WEST

MEDITER.

Isparta

Eğridir

6534

3.11.1970

Natural plant and animal communities, recreation.

 

12

Munzur

Valley

Tunceli

SOUTHEAST ANATOLIA

Elazığ

Tunceli

42000

21.12.1971

Geologic structure, natural plant & animal communities

 

13

Beydağları

Coast

 

 

Antalya

WEST MEDITER.

 

Antalya

 

Antalya

 

34425

 

16.3.1972

Archeological remains, natural plant communities, recreation.

 

14

Gelibolu

Peninsula

 

Çanakkale

 

MARMARA

 

Çanakkale

 

Çanakkale

 

33000

 

22.11.1973

War History, natural plant and animal communities, geomorphic establishments

 

Table 9. (Cont.)

 

 

15

Köprülü

Kanyon

Antalya

WEST

MEDITER.

Antalya

36614

12.12.1973

Archelogical remains,

natural plant

communities,

geological

establishments.

 

16

 

Ilgaz Dağı

 

Kastamonu

 

WEST

BLACK SEA

 

Kastamonu

 

Kastamonu

1088

 

2.06.1976

Natural plant communities, mountain and winter sports, recreation.

 

17

Baţkomutan

Afyon

CENTRAL

ANATOLIA

Kütahya

Afyon

35500

8.11.1981

Historic and cultural values.

 

18

 

Göreme

 

Nevţehir

 

EAST MEDITER.

 

Nevţehir

 

9572

 

25.11.1986

Historic and cultural values, geological formations, recreation.

 

19

 

Altındere

Valley

 

Trabzon

EAST

BLACK SEA

 

Trabzon

 

Maçka

4800

 

9.9.1987

Cultural values, natural plant communities, recreation.

 

20

Boğazköy-

Alaca Höyük

Çorum

CENTRAL

ANATOLIA

Yozgat

Çorum

2634

21.9.1988

Archeological remains.

 

 

21

Nemrut Dağı

Adıyaman

SOUTHEAST ANATOLIA

Şanlıurfa

Şanlıurfa

13850

7.12.1988

Historic open-air museum.

 

22

 

Beyţehir

Gölü

 

Konya

 

CENTRAL ANATOLIA

 

Konya

 

Beyţehir

 

88750

 

11.1.1993

Historic remains, geomor-

phic establishments, migratory bird habitats.

23

Kazdağı

Balıkesir

MARMARA

Balıkesir

Edremit

21300

17.4.1994

Rich in plant and animal .

 

24

Kaçkar

Dağları

Rize

EAST

BLACK SEA

Trabzon

Rize

51550

31.8.1994

Interesting geomorpological structures, richness in plant diversity and wildllife

 

25

Hatila

Vadisi

Artvin

EAST

BLACK SEA

Artvin

Artvin

16988

31.8.1994

Geological establishments and richness in plant diversity.

 

26

Karagöl-Sahara

Artvin

EAST

BLACK SEA

Artvin

Artvin

3766

31.8.1994

Hydrographic structure

and richness in plant communities.

 

27

Altınbeşik Mağarası

Antalya

WEST MEDIOER.

Antalya

Antalya

1156

31.8.1994

Geological establishments

 

28

Honaz Dağı

Denizli

AEGEAN

Denizli

Denizli

9219

21.41995

Geological formations , archeological remains and rich flora (endemic species).

 

29

Aladağlar

Niğde, Adana

Kayseri

EAST

MEDITER.

Adana

Niğde

31894

21.4.1995

Geomorphic structure,flora and fauna richness .

 

30

Marmaris

Muğla

AEGEAN

Muğla

Marmaris

33350

8.3.1996

Geomorphic structure,flora and fauna richness

 

31

 

Saklıkent

 

Muğla

WEST MEDITER., AEGEAN

 

Muğla

 

 

Fethiye

 

 

12390

 

6.6.1996

Geomorphic structure,flora and fauna richness .

 

Table 10. Nature parks in Turkey.

 

 

 

No:

 

NAME

 

CITY

GEO-GRAPHICAL REGIONS

REGIONAL FOREST

DIREC-TORATE

FOREST MANAG-MENT DIREC-TORATE

 

AREA (ha)

DATE OF

ESTABL.

CHARACTERISTICS

1

 

Ölü Deniz-Kıdrak

 

Muğla

 

AEGEAN

 

Muğla

 

Fethiye

 

950

 

1.12.1983

Interesting geological,

and geomorphological

struc-tures, richness in

flora and fauna .

2

Çorum-

Çatak

Çorum

CETRAL

ANATOLIA

Yozgat

Çorum

387,5

11.6.1984

lovely natural structure,

nice scenery.

3

Abant

Lake

Bolu

WEST

BLACK SEA

 

Bolu

 

Bolu

 

1150

 

21.10.1988

Rich in flora and fauna,

scenary and recreation.

4

Yazılı

Kanyon

 

Isparta

WEST

MEDITER.

 

Isparta

 

Sütçüler

600

 

5.9.1989

Rich Plant vegetation,

wild life, and nice

scenary.

5

 

Uzungöl

 

Trabzon

EAST

BLACK SEA

 

Trabzon

 

Trabzon

 

1625

 

3.10.1989

spectacular scenary

and richness in flora

and fauna.

 

6

 

Kurţunlu

Fall

 

Antalya

 

WEST

MEDITER.

 

Antalya

 

Antalya

394

 

21.5.1991

Geomorphology,

splendid landscape, richness in maqui species.

 

7

 

Gölcük

 

Isparta

 

WEST MEDITER.

 

Isparta

 

Isparta

 

6684

 

5.7.1991

Geomorphological

structure and rich diversity of plant and animal species.

8

 

Bafa

Lake

 

Aydın

 

AEGEAN

 

Aydın

 

Aydın

 

12281

 

8.7.1994

B. Menderes River

Delta ecosystem where many endangered bird species find habitats and stay in winter.

9

 

Polonezköy

 

İstanbul

 

MARMARA

 

İstanbul

 

Alemdağ

 

3004

 

15.7.1994

richness in flora and

recreation area for

Istanbul.

 

 

 

10

 

Ayvalık

Isle

 

Balıkesir

 

MARMARA

 

Balıkesir

 

Edremit

 

17950

 

21.4.1995

Geological and peyzaj possibilities and island ecosytem where rich in

flora and fauna species

 

11

 

Ballıkayalar

 

Kocaeli

 

MARMARA

 

İstanbul

 

Kocaeli

 

1847

 

6.9.1995

Geomorphological

structure, nice scenary

and, recreation

potential.

 

 

Table 11. Nature conservation areas in Turkey.

 

 

No:

 

NAME

 

PRO-

VINCE

GEO-GRAPHICAL REGIONS

REGIONAL FOREST

DIREC-TORATE

FOREST MANAG-MENT DIREC-TORATE

 

AREA (ha)

 

DATE OF ESTABL.

CHARACTERISTICS

 

1

 

Hacıosman Forest

 

Samsun

EAST

BLACK SEA

 

Samsun

 

Samsun

 

86

 

24.4.1987

Unique alluvial

forest ecosysytem-

endangered forest

ecosystem.

2

Tekkoz-Kengerli Düz

Hatay

EAST

MEDITER.

 

K.Maraţ

Dörtyol

172

29.5.1987

Fagus orientalis has its most southern distribution here.

 

3

Kasnak

Meţesi

 

Isparta

WEST

MEDITER.

 

Isparta

 

Eğridir

 

1300,5

 

27.7.1987

Pure endemic Quercus vulcanica stands.

 

4

Sütçüler

Sweetgum Forest

Isparta

 

WEST

MEDITER.

 

Isparta

 

Sütçüler

 

88,5

 

27.7.1987

Endemic Liquidamber orientalis has its optimum distribution here.

 

5

 

Sarıkum

 

Sinop

WEST

BLACK SEA

 

Sinop

 

Sinop

 

785

 

30.7.1987

Sea shore, dune,lake, and wetland ecosystems.

6

Beykoz-Göknarlık

İstanbul

MARMARA

İstanbul

Alemdağ

46,5

2.12.1987

The only pure stands of Abies bornmulleriana stands near İstanbul.

 

7

 

Kavaklı

 

Karabük

WEST

BLACK SEA

 

 

Zonguldak

 

Karabük

 

334

 

23.12.1987

In addition to a rich flora and fauna, presence of old-growth Taxus baccata trees

 

8

 

Çitdere

 

Karabük

 

WEST

BLACK SEA

 

 

Zonguldak

 

Karabük

 

721,5

 

29.12.1987

Unique forest ecosys-tem embodying numerous forest tree species as well as presen ce of Istıranca Oak trees of unusual large size.

9

Kökez

Bolu

WEST

BLACK SEA

 

Bolu

Bolu

324

30.12.1987

Very old Abies bornmuleriana and Fagus orientalis stands.

 

10

 

Sülüklügöl

 

Bolu

 

WEST

BLACK SEA

 

Bolu

 

Bolu

 

809,5

 

25.3.1988

Unique combination of lake and wet-land ecosystems and presence of beeches.

 

11

Kasatura Bay

Kırklareli

 

MARMARA

 

Çanakkale

 

Kırklareli

 

329

 

18.4.1988

Only natural black pine stand in Thrace.

 

12

 

Sultan sazlığı

 

Kayseri

 

EAST MEDITER.

 

Adana

 

Yahyalı

 

17200

 

21.4.1988

An international wet-land ecosystem providing habitats for many many bird species which are threaten.

 

13

Sakagölü Longozu

Kırklareli

MARMARA

Çanakkale

Demirköy

1345

29.4.1988

Unique alluvial forest ecosystem

 

14

 

Vakıf Çamlığı

 

Kütahya

 

AEGEAN

 

Kütahya

 

Kütahya

 

685

 

8.6.1988

This is the only place wherepyramidal black pine is fnaturally found in Turkey.

15

Kazdağı Göknarı

Balıkesir

 

MARMARA

 

Balıkesir

 

Edremit

 

240

 

15.6.1988

Endemic Abies equitrojani has its optimum distribution.

 

 

Table 11. (cont.)

 

16

Akdoğan and Rüzgarlar Ebe Çamı

Bolu

 

WEST

BLACK SEA

 

Bolu

 

Bolu

 

174

 

16.8.1988

The only place where endemic &endan- gered Pinus nigra subsp. seneriana is found in Turkey.

17

Sırtlandağ Halep Çamı

Muğla

AEGEAN

Muğla

Milas

760

17.8.1988

One of two places where Aleppo pine is found in Turkey.

 

18

 

Kale-

Bolu Fındığı

 

Bolu

 

WEST

BLACKSEA

 

Bolu

 

Bolu

 

460

 

5.10.1988

Unusual large sized hazelnut trees. Also rich in flora and fauna.

 

19

 

Alacadağ

 

Antalya

 

WEST

MEDITER.

 

Antalya

 

Finike

 

427

 

1.10.1990

A rare ecosystem with more than 20 rare forest tree species, untouched natural structure and monumental trees.

 

20

 

Seyfe

Gölü

 

Kırşehir

CENTRAL

ANATOLIA

 

Ankara

 

Kırşehir

 

10700

 

26.8.1990

Internationally impor-tant wetland and pro-viding habitat for 167 bird species, 20 of them are endangered

 

21

 

Kasalıç

 

Kütahya

 

AEGEAN

 

Kütahya

 

Kütahya

 

134

 

5.2.1991

Untouched beech

and black pine stands with monumental trees.

 

22

 

Çığlıkara

 

Antalya

 

WEST

MEDITER.

 

Antalya

 

Elmalı

 

15889

 

5.7.1991

Cedrus libani has its optimum distribution and monumental cedar trees are found.

 

23

 

Gala Gölü

 

Edirne

 

MARMARA

 

Çanakkale

 

Keţan

 

2369

 

16.7.1991

An important bird refuge for all of Europe providing habitats for many endangered bird species.

 

24

 

Körçoban

 

K.Maraţ

 

EAST

MEDITER.

 

K.Maraţ

 

K.Maraţ

 

580

 

31.12.1993

Monumental Toros fir,cedar and Black pine trees as well as stands are found.

 

25

 

Çamburnu

 

Rize

 

EAST

BLACK SEA

 

Trabzon

 

Rize

 

180

 

31.12.1993

Low altitude- Scots pine stands and habitats for migratory birds.

 

26

 

Dibek

 

Antalya

 

WEST

MEDITER.

 

Antalya

 

Finike

 

550

 

31.12.1993

Monumental Cedrus libani trees and stands as well as untouched forest ecosystem.

 

27

Habibi-neccar

 

Hatay

EAST

MEDITER.

 

K.Maraţ

 

Antakya

 

118

 

31.12.1993

Having untouched natural and cultural

structures.

 

28

 

Demirciönü

 

Bolu

 

WEST

BLACK SEA

 

Bolu

 

Düzce

 

430

 

12.4.1994

Pure and mixed stands of beech, hornbeam and oak species. Also rich in flora, fauna, and wildlife.

 

 

Table 11 (cont.)

 

 

29

 

Yumurtalık

 

Adana

 

EAST

MEDITER.

 

Adana

 

Adana

 

16430

 

8.7.1994

Habitats for breeding endangered sea turtle -Caretta caretta and one of two places where Pinus halepensis is found in Turkey .

 

 

30

 

 

Dandindere

 

 

Eskiţehir

 

CENTRAL

ANATOLIA

 

 

Kütahya

 

 

Afyon

 

 

260

 

 

31.8.1994

Cedrus libani has its most Central Anatolia distribution in this transitional zone to steppe ecosystem.

 

31

 

Kartal Gölü

 

Denizli

 

AEGEAN

 

Aydın

 

Denizli

 

1309

 

23.12.1994

A modren dam lake established in Glacial valley with monumen-tal trees of pure

black pine strand.

 

32

 

Akgöl -Ereğli Sazlığı

 

Karaman

 

CENTRAL

ANATOLIA

 

Konya

 

Karaman

 

6787

 

21.4.1995

It is a lake from Pluvial period. Providing habitats for over 200 bird species.

 

Table 12. Natural monuments in Turkey

 

 

No:

NAME

 

CITY

GEO-GRAPHICAL REGIONS

REGIONAL

FOREST

DIREC-TORATE

FOREST MANAG-MENT DIREC-TORATE

 

AREA (ha)

 

DATE OF

ESTABL.

CHARACTE-RISTICS

 

1

 

Samandere Ţelalesi

 

Bolu

 

WEST

BLACK SEA

 

Bolu

 

Düzce

 

100000

 

19.12.1988

Having interesting geological characteris tics such as Cavlan, fall and monumental trees, and rich in vegetation.

 

2

 

Mızıkçam

 

Kütahya

 

CENTRAL ANATOLIA

 

Kütahya

 

Kütahya

 

5000

 

12.7.1993

Old black pine trees with monumental sizes witnessed for many historical events with the age of 700.

 

3

 

Bığbığ Forest Sarmaşığı

 

Adana

 

EAST

MEDITER.

 

Adana

 

Pozantı

 

154

 

6.6994

The oldest Hedera in the location climbing on a rock with 15 m height.

 

4

 

Asarlık Tepeler

 

Ankara

 

CENTRAL

ANATOLIA

 

Ankara

 

Nallıhan

 

520000

 

22.8.1994

“Kuestra” morphology established by depres-sion of different clay layers of different resistance.

 

5

 

Anadolu Kestanesi

 

İzmir

 

AEGEAN

 

İzmir

 

Ödemiţ

 

2500

 

27.9.1994

Anatolian chestnut, 600 years old with 20 m. height and 3 m diameter.

 

6

 

Eskipazar Türbe Çamı

 

Çankırı

 

CENTRAL

ANATOLIA

 

Ankara

 

Çankırı

500

 

27.9.1994

Black pine of 300 years old, with 7.50 m. height, 1.40 m. diameter.

 

7

 

Araç Türbe Çamı

 

Kastamo-nu

 

WEST

BLACKSEA

 

Kastamonu

 

Kastamo-nu

 

2500

 

27.9.1994

Black pine tree, 600 years old with 25 m.height, 1.85 m. diameter.

 

8

 

Fosil Ardıç

 

Konya

CENTRAL

ANATOLIA

 

Konya

 

Konya

 

500

 

27.9.1994

Juniper tree of 500 years old with 4.50 m. in circumference

 

 

9

 

Titrek

Kavak

 

Konya

 

CENTRAL

ANATOLIA

 

Konya

 

Beyţehir

 

2500

 

27.2.1994

Poplar tree of 100

years old with 25 m. height, and 2.50 m in diameter.

 

10

 

Koca

Katran

 

Mersin

 

EAST

MEDITER.

 

Mersin

 

İçel

 

2500

 

27.2.1994

Cedar tree of 620 years old with 40 m height and 2.34 m in diameter.

 

11

Taşdede Pırnal

Meţesi

 

İzmir

 

AEGEAN

 

İzmir

 

Dikili

 

1500

 

29.9.1994

Oak tree of 250 years old wih 8 m.height and 1m. in diameter.

 

12

Dokuz

Kardeşler Çamı

 

Çankırı

 

CENTRAL ANATOLIA

 

Ankara

 

Çankırı

 

1500

 

29.9.1994

Black pine tree of 200 years old with 25 m. height and 2.8 m.in diameter.

 

13

 

Barla Sedir Ağacı

 

Isparta

 

WEST

MEDITER.

 

Isparta

 

Eğridir

 

2500

 

29.9.1994

Toros cedar tree of 320 years old with 15 m height and

1.9 m. in diameter.

 

 

Table 12. (cont.)

 

 

14

 

Kunduracı

Çınarı

 

İzmir

 

AEGEAN

 

Izmir

 

İzmir

 

1500

 

 

29.9.1994

Plane tree of 980 years old with 30 m.height and 4 m. in diameter.

 

15

 

Kızılcaelmaltı Meşesi

 

Sinop

WEST

BLACK SEA

 

Sinop

 

Sinop

 

2500

 

29.9.1994

Oak tree of 250 years old with 25 m height and 1.2 m. in diameter.

 

16

 

Ana Ardıç

 

Mersin

EAST

MEDITER.

 

Mersin

 

Tarsus

 

2500

 

29.9.1994

Juniper tree of 840 years old with 21m.height and 2.75 m. in diameter.

 

17

 

Çatal Sedir

 

Isparta

 

WEST

MEDITER.

 

Isparta

 

Isparta

(Dirmil)

 

2500

 

29.9.1994

Toros cedar tree of 250 years old with 34 m. height and 1.4 m. in diameter.

 

18

 

Söğüt Yaylası

Ulu Ardıç

 

Isparta

 

WEST

MEDITER.

 

Isparta

 

Sütçüler

 

2500

 

29.9.1994

Juniper tree of 1000 years old with 27m height and 2.5 m. in diameter.

 

19

 

Meţe

Ağacı

 

Adapazarı

 

MARMARA

 

Adapazarı

 

Adapazarı

 

2500

 

9.11.1994

Oak tree of 300-400 years old with 25-30 m. height and 2 m. in diameter.

 

20

 

Görkemli

Meţe

 

Sinop

 

WEST

BLACK SEA

 

Sinop

 

Sinop

 

2500

 

9.11.1994

Oak tree of 350 years old wih 20m.height and 1.8 m. in diameter.

 

21

 

Teos

Menengici

 

İzmir

 

AEGEAN

 

İzmir

 

Urla

 

1500

 

9.11.1994

Pistachia tree of 350 years old with 4 m height, 0.5 m. in diameter, resembling human figure.

 

22

 

Ulu Kavak

 

Yozgat

 

CENTRAL

ANATOLIA

 

Yozgat

 

Yozgat

 

1500

 

9.11.1994

Poplar tree of 200 years old with 20 m. height and 2.50 m in diameter.

 

 

23

 

Güney

Ţelalesi

 

 

Aydın

 

 

AEGEAN

 

 

Aydın

 

 

Aydın

 

 

0,5

 

 

9.11.1994

Nice scenary and recreational

potential.

 

24

Subaşı-

Havuzlar

Çınarı

 

İstanbul

 

MARMARA

 

Istanbul

 

Çatalca

 

2500

 

7.2.1995

Plane trees of 900-1000 years old with 15m. height and 3.5 m. in diameter.

 

25

Kızılağaç

Köyü

Lübnan

Sediri

 

Antalya

 

WEST

MEDIOER.

 

Antalya

 

Finike

 

2500

 

21.2.1995

Toros cedar tree of 1500 years old with 26 m. height and 2.45m. in diameter.

 

26

 

Koca Katran Lübnan

Sediri

 

Antalya

 

WEST

MEDITER.

 

Antalya

 

Finike

 

2500

 

21.2.1995

 

Toros cedar tree of 2000 years old with 25m.height and 2.62 m. in diameter.

 

 

 

Table 12. (cont.)

 

27

 

Şah Ardıç

 

Antalya

 

WEST MEDITER.

 

Antalya

 

Finike

 

2500

 

21.2.1995

Juniper tree of 800 years old with 24 m height and 2.35 m. in diameter.

 

28

 

Koç Sedir

 

Antalya

 

WEST

MEDITER.

 

Antalya

 

Finike

 

2500

 

21.2.1995

Cedar tree of 650 years old with 35 m.height and 1.85 m.in diameter.

 

29

 

Söğüt Köyü Çınarı

 

Muğla

 

AEGEAN

 

Muğla

 

Marmaris

 

1500

 

21.2.1995

Sycamore tree of 250 years old with 35 m. height and 2.70 m. in diameter.

 

30

 

Bayır Servi Ağacı

 

Muğla

 

AEGEAN

 

Muğla

 

Marmaris

 

1500

 

21.2.1995

Cypress tree of 250 years old with 30 m height and 1.80 m. in diameter.

 

31

 

Bayır Çınarı

 

Muğla

 

AEGEAN

 

Muğla

 

Marmaris

 

1500

 

21.2.1995

Sycamore tree of 300 years old with 30 m. height and 2.67 m. in diameter.

 

32

 

Ulu Meţe

 

Muğla

 

AEGEAN

 

Muğla

 

Fethiye

 

1500

 

21.2.1995

Oak tree with 25 m height and 1.42 m. in diameter.

 

33

 

Ovacık Köyü Anadolu Kestanesi

 

 

İzmir

 

 

AEGEAN

 

 

Izmir

 

 

Ödemiţ

 

 

2500

 

 

21.2.1995

 

Anatolian chestnut tree of 500 years old with 18 m. height and 2.78 m. in diameter.

34

Çatal

Çam

Isparta

WEST

MEDITER.

Isparta

Sütcüler

2500

21.4.1995

Forked pine tree of 650-700 years old with 22 m height and 1.88 m. diameter.

35

Aslan Ardıç

Antalya

WEST

MEDITER.

Antalya

Finike

2500

21.4.1995

Juniper tree of 1700 years old with 25 m. height and 3.40 m. in diameter

 

36

Karamık Köyü Sedir Ağacı

 

Antalya

 

WEST

MEDITER.

 

Antalya

 

Finike

 

2500

 

21.4.1995

Toros Cedar tree of 500 years old with 25 m. height and 1.82 m. in diameter.

 

37

Beldeğir-

menKöyü Çınar Ağacı

 

Kastamonu

 

WEST

MEDITER.

 

Kastamonu

 

İnebolu

 

1500

 

21.4.1995

Plane tree of 800 years old with 50m. height and 2.8m. in diameter.

 

38

 

Oniki Kardeşler Tabiat Anıtı

 

Kastamonu

 

WEST

MEDITER.

 

Kastamonu

 

İnebolu

 

1500

 

21.4.1995

12 beech (Fagus) tree originated from single root stock, about 95-105 years old with 35-40 m. height 40-45 cm in diameter.

 

Table 12. (cont.)

 

 

 

39

 

 

Erenler

Çamı

 

 

Kasta-

monu

 

 

WEST

BLACK SEA

 

 

Kastamonu

 

 

Kastamonu

 

 

1500

 

 

21.4.1995

Pine tree of 300 years

old with 5m.height, 0.90 m. diameter and 12-15 m. in length of lateral branches paralell to ground.

 

40

 

Kıranı

Evliya

Ardıcı

 

Gümüţ-hane

 

EAST

BLACK SEA

 

Trabzon

 

Gümüţhane

 

2500

 

26.6.1995

In 2123 m. altitude, 700 years old Juniper tree

with 4.80 m.height and 1.32 m. in diameter.

 

41

Ali Ağanın Kavağı

 

Gümüţ-hane

 

EAST

BLACK SEA

 

Trabzon

 

Gümüţhane

 

1500

 

26.6.1995

Poplar tree of 500 years old with 30 m. height and 1,55 m. in diameter.

 

42

Yarenler Fıstık Çamı

 

İzmir

 

AEGEAN

 

İzmir

 

Urla

 

2500

 

25.7.1995

Stone pine tree of 150 years old with 30 m. height and 1.30m in diameter.

 

43

İlk Kurşun Çınarı

 

İzmir

 

AEGEAN

 

İzmir

 

Ödemiţ

 

2500

 

25.7.1995

Plane tree of 300 years old with 32 m. height and 2 m. in diameter.

 

44

 

Yemiţçi

Çınarı

 

İzmir

 

AEGEAN

 

İzmir

 

Güzelbahçe

 

2500

 

25.7.1995

Plane tree of 350 years old with 20 m.height and 3 m. in diameter.

 

45

 

Fıstık Çamı

 

İzmir

 

AEGEAN

 

İzmir

 

Güzelbahçe

 

2500

 

25.7.1995

Stone pine tree of 105 years old with 20 m. height and 1.2 m. in diameter.

 

46

Örümcek

Ormanı Ladini (1)

 

Gümüţ-

hane

 

EAST

BLACK SEA

 

Trabzon

 

Gümüţhane

 

2500

 

11.10.1995

Oriental spruce tree of 400 years old with 49.1 m. height and 1.48 m. in diameter.

 

47

 

Örümcek Ormanı LadIni (2)

 

Gümüţ-

hane

 

EAST

BLACK SEA

 

Trabzon

 

Gümüţhane

 

2500

 

25.07.1995

Oriental spruce tree of 400 years old with 61.5 m.height and 1.54 m. in diameter.

 

48

 

Örümcek Ormanı Ladini (3)

 

Gümüţ-

hane

 

EAST

BLACK SEA

 

Trabzon

 

Gümüţhane

 

2500

 

11.10.1995

Oriental spruce tree of 400 years old with 52.5 m. height and 1.21 m. in diameter.

 

49

 

Örümcek Ormanı Ladini (4)

 

Gümüţ-

hane

 

EAST

BLACK SEA

 

Trabzon

 

Gümüţhane

 

2500

 

11.10.1995

Oriental spruce tree of 400 years old with 53.4 m. height and 22 m.

in diameter.

 

50

Örümcek

Ormanı

Göknarı (1)

 

Gümüţ-

hane

 

EAST

BLACK SEA

 

Trabzon

 

Gümüţhane

 

2500

 

11.10.1995

Fir tree of 400 years old with 5.45 m. height and 1.18m. in diameter.

 

51

Örümcek Ormanı Göknarı (2)

Gümüţ-

hane

EAST

BLACK SEA

Trabzon

Gümüţhane

2500

11.10.1995

Fir tree of 400 years old with 54 m height and 1.92 m in diameter.

 

52

Örümcek Ormanı Göknarı (3)

Gümüţ-

hane

EAST

BLACK SEA

Trabzon

Gümüţhane

2500

11.10.1995

Fir tree of 400 years old with 57.6m. height and 1.76 m. in diameter.

 

53

Örümcek Ormanı Göknarı (4)

 

Gümüţ-

hane

EAST

BLACK SEA

 

Trabzon

 

müţhane

 

2500

 

11.10.1995

Fir tree of 400 years old with 58.5m. height and 1.8 m. in diameter.

 

54

Kadınlar Kuyusu Koca Menengici

 

İzmir

 

AEGEAN

 

İzmir

 

Foça

 

2500

 

31.10.1995

Pistachia tree of 600 years old with 14 m. height and 2.1 m. in diameter.

 

 

 

Table 13. Type, number and size of conservation areas in Turkey and their shares in total country area.

 

 

Conservation Types

Numbers

Total Area (ha)

% of Country Area

National Parks

31

612112

0.8

Nature Conservation Areas

32

82023

0.1

Nature Parks

11

46872

0.06

Natural Monuments

54

74

0.0001

Seed Stands

322

32914

0.04

Gene Conservation Forests

16

2816

0.0036

Wildlife Conservation Areas

109

1800000

2.32

Specially Protected Regions

12

418800

0.54

Protection Forests

48

360130

0.46

Rest and Camp Areas

415

12770

0.016

State Farms

38

381162

0.49

Total :

 

3749673

4.83

 

 

 

Table 14. Numbers and total areas of seed stands established for economically

important forest tree species.

 

Tree Species

Number of Seed Stands

Total Area Covered (ha)

Total Core Area (ha)

Abies bormülleriana- Uludağ Fir

8

777.0

447.0

Abies cilica-Taurus Fir

3

417.5

234.5

Abies equi-trojani- Kazdağı Fir

1

84.5

17.0

Abies nordmanniana- Eastern Black Sea Fir

12

2158.0

986.0

Acer spp.- Maple

1

61.5

17.5

Alnus spp.- Alder

7

595.0

239.0

Castanea sativa- Chestnut

1

326.0

38.0

Cedrus libani- Taurus cedar

22

2881.0

116.3

Cupresus sempervirens- Cypress

1

38.0

32.5

Eucalyptus spp.*- Eucalyptus

1

93.5

92.0

Fagus orientalis- Eastern Beech

28

3869.6

2052.6

Fraxinus spp.- Ash

4

175.0

92.0

Liquidambar orientalis- Sweet Gum

3

479.0

20.0

Picea orientalis- Eastern Spruce

12

1388.0

755.5

Pinus brutia- Turkish Red Pine

65

9258.5

3735.5

Pinus elderica*- Elderica Pine

1

448.75

10.0

Pinus halepensis- Aleppo pine

2

403.5

50.5

Pinus nigra- Black Pine

86

11311.5

5207.5

Pinus pinaster*- Maritime Pine

4

253.53

105.87

Pinus pinea- Italian Stone Pine

7

1729.5

578.5

Pinus radiata*- Radiata Pine

1

81.0

2.0

Pinus sylvestris- Scots Pine

35

4662.25

3219.5

Platanus orientalis- Eastern Sycamore

1

175.0

30.0

Quercus spp.- Oak sp.

17

1844.0

949.35

Robinia pseudoaccia*- Accacia

1

156.0

18.0

Tilia spp.- Basswood

3

145.81

55.05

TOTAL

327

43762.25

20058.39

* exotic species.

 

 

Table 15. The name, location and size of State Farms managed by the General Directorate of Agricultural

Enterprises of MARA in Turkey.

 

The name and location (provincial center) of state farms

Total

Land (da)

The Land Except Pasture+Range & Noncultivated Area (da)

ACIPAYAM - Denizli

21014

12564

ALPASLAN - Muţ

69689

33238

ALTINDERE - Van

15000

12244

ALTINOVA - Konya

324000

45992

ANADOLU - Eskiţehir

43404

10789

ATATÜRK - Yalova

2995

984

BALA - Ankara

83827

15221

BOZTEPE - Antalya

5482

693

CEYLANPINAR - Şanlıurfa

1761594

718784

ÇİÇEKDAĞI - Yozgat

16408

1451

ÇUKUROVA - Adana

42830

3380

DALAMAN - Muğla

34643

11976

GELEMEN - Samsun

13129

3858

GÖKÇEADA - Çanakkale

3967

738

GÖKHÖYÜK - Amasya

25011

4928

GÖLE - Kars

13855

13833

GÖZLÜ - Konya

288360

94025

HAFİK - Sivas

2 280

1473

HATAY - Hatay

21240

2151

İNANLI - Tekirdağ

10500

4688

KAZIM KARABEKİR - Iğdır

187928

180087

K.MARAŢ - K.Maraţ

20711

11067

KARACABEY - Bursa

87771

19623

KARAKÖY - Samsun

20130

13973

KAZOVA - Tokat

5415

1306

KOÇAŢ - Aksaray

25313

5780

KONUKLAR - Konya

42473

5400

KUMKALE - Çanakkale

6448

1223

MALYA - Kırşehir

217260

65940

MANİSA - Manisa

179

41

POLATLI - Ankara

250808

40902

SAKARYA - Sakarya

3 846

1872

SULTANSUYU - Malatya

39042

12002

TAHİROVA - Balıkesir

10012

2254

TURUNÇGİLLER - Hatay

2629

392

TÜRKGELDİ - Kırklareli

19050

5073

ULAŢ - Sivas

73 186

24387

Central Prod. and Logistic State Farm

193

109

TOTAL

3811622

1384476

 

 

 

 

Table 16. Number , total area and total number of clones of seed orchards established for economically important forest tree species.

Tree Species

Total Numbers of Seed Orchards Established

Total Numbers of Clones

Total Area (ha)

Pinus brutia (Turkish red pine)

48

1343

342.6

Pinus nigra ( Black pine)

55

1502

454.4

Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine)

19

548

97.0

Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine)

2

30

8.2

Cedrus libani (Taurus cedar)

13

374

68.9

Picea orientalis (Oriental spruce)

6

200

21.4

Pinus pinea (Italian stone pine)

4

120

47.2

Abies bornmulleriana (Uludaº fir)

1

30

5.0

Jugland regia (Walnut)

2

21

1.6

Liquidambar orientalis (Sweet gum)

1

30

2.2

TOTAL

151

4198

1048.4

 

 

APPENDIX- 3: Distribution Maps of Target Species