Selected Significant Events in the Development and History of Clinical Psychology

Before Psychology was founded as a field

2,500 - 500 BC Supernatural, magic, herbs, and reason approach to mental and physical illness

470 - 322 BC Greeks used holistic approach to illness attentive to biological, psychologiacl, and social influences

130 - 200 AD Galen developes foundation of Western medicine based on the influence of the Greeks which lasts 1,000 years

500 - 1450 Middle Ages: supernatural forces influence health and illness

1225 - 1274 Saint Thomas Aquinas uses scientific thinking to help explain health and illness

1490 - 1541 Paracelsus suggests that the movements of the stars, moon, sun, and planets influence behavior

1500 - 1700 Renassiance witnessed numerous scientific discoveries suggesting that biological factors influence health and illness

1596 - 1650 Rene' Descarte developes mind/body dulism

1745 - 1826 Pinel developed humane moral therapy to treat mentally ill in France

1802 - 1887 Dorothea Dix advocates for humane treatment of mentally ill in America

    1. New Jersey becomes first state to build a hospital for mentally ill


After Psychology was founded as a field until World War II

1879 Wundt developes first laboratory in psychology

1879 William James develops first American psychology laboratory at Harvard

1883 G. Stanley Hall develops second psychology laboratory at John Hopkins

1888 James McKeen Cattell develops third American psychology laboratory

1890 James publishes Principles of Psychology

1890 James McKeen Cattell defines "mental test"

1892 American Psychological Association founded

1895 Breuer and Freud publish Studies on Hysteria

1896 Witmer establishes first psychological clinic at U. Penn

1900 Freud publishes The Interpretation of Dreams

1904 Binet begins developing an intelligence test

1905 Binet and Simon offer Binet-Simon Scale of intelligence

1905 Jung creates a word association test

1907 Psychological Clinic, first clinical journal published

1908 Beers begins mental hygiene movement

1909 Clinical psychology section formed at APA

1909 Freud's only visit to America at Clark University

1909 Healy develops child guidance clinic in Chicago

1916 Terman develops Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test

1917 Clinician of APA leave to form American Association of Clinical Psychologists (AACP)

1917 Yerkes and committee develop Army Alpha test

1919 AACP rejoins APA

1921 James McKeen Cattell develops Psychological Corporation

1921 Rorschach presents his inkblot test

1924 Mary Cover Jones uses learning principles to treat children's fears

1935 APA Committee on Standards and Training define clinical psychology

1935 Murray and Morgan publish the TAT

1936 Louttit publishes first clinical psychology textbook

1937 Clinicians leave APA again to form American Association of Applied Psychology (AAAP)

1937 Journal of Consulting Psychology begins

1939 The Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale is published

1943 Hathaway publishes MMPI

1945 AAAP rejoins APA


Significant Selected Events in the Development and History of Clinical Psychology Since World War II


1945 AAAP rejoins APA

1945 Connecticut passes first certification law for psychology

1946 VA and NIMH fund clinical psychology training

1947 ABEPP is founded to certify clinicians

1949 Halstead presents neuropsychological testing battery

1949 Boulder Conference defines scientist-practitioner model of training


1950 Dollard and Miller publish Personality and psychotherapy: An analysis in terms of learning, thinking, and culture.

1951 Rogers publishes Client-Centered Therapy

1952 Eysenck publishes The effects of psychotherapy: An evaluation.

1952 American Psychiatric Association publishes diagnostic categories in Diagnostic andStatistical Manual (DSM - I)

1953 APA publishes Ethical Standards

1953 Skinner presents operant principles

1955 Joint Commission on Mental health and Illness founded

1956 Stanford University training conference

1958 Wolpe publishes Psychotherapy by reciprocal inhibition

1958 Miami training conference

1959 Mental Research Institute (MRI) founded


1960 Eysenck publishes Handbook of abnormal psychology: An experimental approach

1963 Congress passes legislation creating community mental health centers

1965 Chicago training conference

1965 Conference at Swamscott, MA starts community psychology movement

1967 Association for Advancement in Behavior therapy founded

1968 First PsyD program founded at the University of Illinois

1969 First free standing professional school of psychology founded at California School of Professional Psychology


1970 DSM II published

1973 Vail training conference

1976 National Council of Schools of Professional Psychology (NCSPP) founded

1977 George Engel publishes paper in Science defining biopsychosocial model

1977 Wachtel publishes Psychoanalysis and behavior therapy: Toward an integration


1980 DSM III published

1981 APA ethical standards revised

1982 Health psychology defined

1986 NCSPP Mission Bay training conference

1987 Salt Lake City training conference

1987 DSM III-R published

1988 American Psychological Society founded

1989 NCSPP San Juan training conference


1990 NCSPP Gainesville training conference

1991 NCSPP San Antonio training conference

1992 Michigan Conference on postdoctoral training

1994 DMS IV published

1995 APA publishes a list of empirically validated treatments